Subjective and Objective Data
It could be assumed that the patient will share the additional subjective data in terms of cold symptoms that she presumably has. Also, it is possible to gather the verbal statements of the type of chest pain she has during cough as well as the description of fatigue. Also, as the patient has type 2 diabetes, it is crucial to investigate her diet during the past few days (DeWit & Kumagai, 2014). Regarding the objective data, it is necessary to assess all the overt indicators and signs. That is to say, the patient should be checked in terms of skin crackles and dullness to percussion. Furthermore, it is necessary to conduct a chest X-ray. Other mandatory examinations include the general and biochemical blood tests. These assessments should be carried out for accurate diagnosis and treatment purposes.
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The national guideline for Respiratory Diseases discussed in Healthy People 2020 could be considered. In particular, the objectives discussed in RD-7 “Increase the proportion of persons with current asthma who receive appropriate asthma care according to National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (NAEPP) guidelines” are applicable (Gould & Dyer, 2014). They dwell upon the plan of care for patients with acute respiratory diseases and promote practices for clinicians to promote health and prevent diseases.
Tests and Consultation
Given the protracted nature of the common cold, fever with severe weakness, the presence of productive cough and chest pain, ordering chest X-rays as mentioned above is essential. Also, it is necessary to carry out a microscopic examination and sputum culture, urine, and blood tests to determine the presence of antibodies against various infectious agents that can cause the disease (Gould & Dyer, 2014). To be able to limit the number of preliminary nursing diagnoses it would be useful to consult a pulmonologist.
Because people with diabetes have weakened immune systems and disrupted metabolism, any infection is especially dangerous for them. In the case of Mrs. C., the common cold or seasonal flu has resulted in severe inflammation (DeWit & Kumagai, 2014). Thus, the preliminary nursing diagnoses are insufficient airway clearance due to inflammation, aggravated gas exchange, and fluid volume deficit. The medical diagnosis is pneumonia.
When designing the plan of care for patients of senior age, certain ethical dilemmas might occur. Firstly, patients of older age cannot fully or clearly describe their condition. Secondly, they cannot always effectively communicate their wishes; therefore, the decision-making process becomes more complicated. The health care specialist should weigh all the aspects in terms of antimicrobial resistance emergence in the course of infectious disease treatment (DeWit & Kumagai, 2014). It is significant to evaluate the particular benefits the therapy would bring to the patient compared to the outcomes for prospective patients.
Plan of Care
The treatment plan should be based on antibiotics. It is possible to prescribe cephalosporins or the combination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole (DeWit & Kumagai, 2014). However, it is crucial to be particularly attentive to the process of caretaking into account the type of diabetes, diabetic medicine that patient takes, and concomitant diseases. During treatment, the specialist, as well as the patient, should monitor blood glucose levels because the need for insulin might vary. Complementary therapy might include vitamins A, C, E intake. The patient can be prescribed with acidophilus caps and advised on a raw juice diet. Moreover, turpentine oil would help relieve pain.
Circle of Caring
To reach optimal health outcomes using the Circle of Caring, the nurse’s input should be intensified. In particular, the nurse furnishing care to Mrs. C. should be empowered to execute autonomy within the expertise by the acute patient’s needs (Gould & Dyer, 2014). Also, the nurse should be authorized to provide educational services and support to the patient’s family so that Mrs. C’s husband could take better care of the wife utilizing complementary therapies.
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DeWit, S., & Kumagai, C. (2014). Medical-surgical nursing. New York, NY: Elsevier.
Gould, B., & Dyer, R. (2014). Pathophysiology for the health professions. New York, NY: Elsevier.