In modern nursing practice, there are many patients who suffer from pressure ulcers that are also known as bedsores. These sores may be observed on the skin when a person has to sit in a chair or lie in a bed for a long period, so that tissue pressure reduces blood supply. It is necessary to understand the risks associated with pressure ulcers and think of the interventions for different hospitals and facilities. In this paper, four different studies will be investigated to clarify what intervention may be offered to the vulnerable population, including obese people, elderly patients, and the patients who have serious injuries or who are in need of postoperative care.
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“Preventing Pressure Ulcers – Are Pressure-Redistributing Support Surfaces Effective?” is an article written by McInnes, Jammali-Blasi, Bell-Syer, Dumville, and Cullum (2012) about the effectiveness of pressure-redistributing support surfaces as one of the possible preventive tools for pressure ulcers. The authors discuss various devices, the aim of which is to reduce the pressure that may cause the growth of ulcers, including special seat cushions, foam mattresses, and limb protection. The quality of the article is high due to the chosen research methods: a systematic review and meta-analysis in terms of which it was possible to investigate randomized controlled and informative quasi-randomized trials about pressure ulcer prevention in different patient groups. The evidence offered by the authors is significant because it proves that there are no specific instructions and guidelines for nurses to be followed while preventing pressure ulcers. It is necessary to consider the existed research gaps and develop a new project with clear interventions and explanations. In general, this article contains a significant comparison of the tools which may prevent pressure ulcers. However, no clear conclusions and decisions about the most effective treatment can be found.
Sullivan and Schoelles (2013) are the authors of the article “Preventing in-Facility Pressure Ulcers as a Patient Safety Strategy” about the necessity to simplify and standardize pressure ulcer interventions for different medical workers in the fields of practical nursing, leadership, and education. The main strength of this systematic review is the use of different studies published between 2000 and 2012 and taken from such credible databases as EMBASE or MEDLINE. There was no excluding criteria for study design. The only task was to gather enough information on how it was possible to prevent pressure ulcers among adult patients during a chosen period. There were 26 studies chosen for the analysis. Each of them can be a significant contribution to a future study because of the possibility to create a solid theoretical background and understand why mortality and morbidity because of pressure ulcers have to be reduced in a short period of time. Though there is no definite intervention for a vulnerable population, the essence of pressure ulcers is properly described in the article.
Tayyib and Coyer (2016) introduced the article “Effectiveness of Pressure Ulcer Prevention Strategies for Adult Patients in Intensive Care Units” to describe the effectiveness of interventions for caregivers. The peculiar feature of this article is the identification of such steps as risk and skin assessment, skincare, position, nutrition, education, and promotion of special helpful devices (Tayyib & Coyer, 2016). Types of participants and interventions are properly identified. Adult patients in intensive care units have to be ready for certain changes in their lives because the prevention of pressure ulcers is not an easy task. Physical activities, emotional challenges, and unpredictable costs may influence the treatment process. This article is significant because it helps to realize that pressure ulcer prevention is not only the usage of special tools and devices but a complicated process of assessment and education.
“Creating a Pressure Ulcer Prevention Algorithm” is an article by van Rijswijk and Beitz (2013) where the authors not only discuss what pressure ulcer prevention is all about and how it is possible to help different patients but also develop an algorithm that can be used by care providers and patients in their intentions to avoid the risks connected with pressure ulcers and understand individual components in a treatment process. The quality and the level of evidence of this article are high because of the presence of evidence-based materials and face validation supported by the authors. Though there is still a research gap in the study, it helps to clarify why prevention is important for patients, nurses, doctors, and hospitals in general.
Regarding the information taken from the chosen four articles, the work of intensive care units, postoperative care, and emergency room departments may be considerably improved in case such interventions as patient education and explanations to the work of special helpful devices are promoted. An educational intervention should depend on patients’ needs and nurses’ knowledge. A new program for the patients who introduce a vulnerable part of a population should be supported by hospitals in order to understand why it is better to prevent but not to treat pressure ulcers.
McInnes, E., Jammali-Blasi, A., Bell-Syer, S., Dumville, J., & Cullum, N. (2012). Preventing pressure ulcers – Are pressure-redistributing support surfaces effective?: A Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 49(3), 345-359.
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Sullivan, N., & Schoelles, K. M. (2013). Preventing in-facility pressure ulcers as a patient safety strategy: A systematic review. Annals of Internal Medicine, 158(5), 410-416.
Tayyib, N., & Coyer, F. (2016). Effectiveness of pressure ulcer prevention strategies for adult patients in intensive care units: A systematic review protocol. JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports, 14(3), 35-44.
van Rijswijk, L., & Beitz, J.M. (2013). Creating a pressure ulcer prevention algorithm: Systematic review and face validation. Ostomy/Wound Management, 59(11), 28-40.