Prevention of Breast Cancer

The Introduction of Study

The present proposal offers a study that will examine the possible effectiveness of consultations performed by advanced registered nurse practitioners (ARNPs) in promoting the use of mammography in high-risk populations. The problem of the study is a major one because it is connected to one of the critical health concerns that affect women worldwide: breast cancer (Gagnon et al., 2016; Nattinger & Mitchell, 2016). In turn, mammography is an effective countermeasure that dramatically reduces the negative outcomes of the condition, including mortality (Best, Spencer, Hall, Friedman, & Billings, 2014; Gray et al., 2017). As a result, the present proposal suggests contributing some evidence on the topic that would assist ARNPs in their practice.

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Research problems

The key problem pertinent to breast cancer screening is the need to foster self-care behaviors and promote the use of mammography in women in high-risk groups (Percac-Lima, Ashburner, McCarthy, Piawah, & Atlas, 2015). The issue is especially true for disadvantaged populations like the African American women (Best et al., 2014; Gray et al., 2017). Given the significance of the role of nurses, including ARNPs, in breast cancer prevention and treatment (Donovan, Urquhart, Hopkins, Knight, & Moore, 2014), ARNPs need to be engaged in some effective methods of the promotion of the use of screening in their patients. However, recent literature does not seem to contain much information about the possible contribution of ARNPs to the popularization of mammography. The proposed study will attempt to produce some evidence on the topic.

Research Question

What is the effectiveness of informative consultations by ARNP in encouraging women to use mammography?

Literature Review

Nurse practitioners, including ARNPs, are supposed to educate patients on cancer awareness, which involves the information concerning mammography (Gray et al., 2017). Recommendations of healthcare providers are shown to be one of the factors that can affect breast screening in women (Donovan et al., 2014; Haas et al., 2017; Percac-Lima et al., 2015). Haas et al. (2017) highlight the fact that it is not the only factor, and according to their investigation, recommendations can have only moderate effects on screening rates, but the impacts are still present. Apart from that, the specifics of the messages offered by providers can affect screening preferences in women. For example, the analysis of the data gathered by Best et al. (2014) demonstrates that culturally appropriate consultations are required to encourage women to screen for breast cancer. In summary, there is some evidence to nurse-led consultations being capable of promoting mammography.

Practice Issues

A preliminary literature search has not produced much information regarding the effectiveness of nurse-led efforts in promoting breast cancer screening in high-risk populations. Also, few direct guidelines have been discovered; it was predominantly established that the messages need to be customized and culturally sensitive with individual and group barriers taken into account (Best et al., 2014; Gray et al., 2017). Overall, it appears that additional guidance on the promotion of mammography in high-risk populations is required to assist ARNPs in their practice.

Background and Significance of the Problem

Breast cancer is a major healthcare concern which affects over 1.67 million women every year throughout the world, has high mortality rates, and reduces the quality of life in patients and their families (Gagnon et al., 2016; Nattinger & Mitchell, 2016). As a form of secondary prevention, mammography has been proven to be effective in improving health outcomes (Gagnon et al., 2016; Haas et al., 2017). Also, there is sufficient evidence to claim that mammography can reduce mortality rates, especially in high-risk populations (for example, older women) (Nattinger & Mitchell, 2016). At the same time, screening engagement needs to be promoted, especially in high-risk and disadvantaged populations (Best et al., 2014; Gray et al., 2017). Thus, the problem of the promotion of mammography is a significant one and should be addressed, in particular, by investigating the effectiveness of ARNP-led consultations.


Best, A., Spencer, M., Hall, I., Friedman, D., & Billings, D. (2014). Developing spiritually framed breast cancer screening messages in consultation with African American women. Health Communication, 30(3), 290-300. Web.

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Donovan, D., Urquhart, L., Hopkins, U., Knight, S., & Moore, L. (2014). Oncology nursing support for safe and effective use of eribulin in metastatic breast cancer. Clinical Medicine Insights: Oncology, 8, 1-6. Web.

Gagnon, J., Lévesque, E., Borduas, F., Chiquette, J., Diorio, C., & Duchesne, N. … Simard, J. (2016). Recommendations on breast cancer screening and prevention in the context of implementing risk stratification: Impending changes to current policies. Current Oncology, 23(6), 615. Web.

Gray, T., Cudjoe, J., Murphy, J., Thorpe, R., Wenzel, J., & Han, H. (2017). Disparities in cancer screening practices among minority and underrepresented populations. Seminars in Oncology Nursing, 33(2), 184-198. Web.

Haas, J. S., Barlow, W. E., Schapira, M. M., MacLean, C. D., Klabunde, C. N., Sprague, B. L.,… Harris, K. (2017). Primary care providers’ beliefs and recommendations and use of screening mammography by their patients. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 32(4), 449-457. Web.

Nattinger, A., & Mitchell, J. (2016). Breast cancer screening and prevention. Annals of Internal Medicine, 164(11), ITC81. Web.

Percac-Lima, S., Ashburner, J., McCarthy, A., Piawah, S., & Atlas, S. (2015). Patient Navigation to improve follow-up of abnormal mammograms among disadvantaged women. Journal of Women’s Health, 24(2), 138-143. Web.

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"Prevention of Breast Cancer." StudyCorgi, 8 Apr. 2021,

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StudyCorgi. "Prevention of Breast Cancer." April 8, 2021.


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