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Project Stakeholder Management

List and explain ways to measure project success. Why does success need to be monitored during the progression of the project?

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The success of a project can be measured through evaluation of stakeholders’ satisfaction, end user adoption, the governance criteria and the extent to which the project objectives are met. Evaluation of stakeholders’ satisfaction has to do with asking all the stakeholders whether they are satisfied with the final result of a project. This enables the managers to identify areas of inefficiency and correct them in future projects (Margoluis & Salafsky, 1998).

End-user adoption has to do with ascertaining whether the customers of a project are actually utilizing the results of the project as envisioned in the project document. It helps the project managers to make the necessary changes so as to make the customers fully utilize the results of a project as expected.

Evaluating the governance criteria has to do with reviewing the administration of a project. The managers need to ask critical questions such as whether the project administrator constantly consulted the advisory committee or not, whether the project was adequately reviewed and whether the review process was adequate or inadequate. These questions help the managers to review the governance policy accordingly (Rad & Levin, 2003).

Meeting project objectives have to do with ascertaining whether the project actually achieved what it was intended to achieve. This helps the managers in correcting the project design in future projects for effective achievement of objectives.

The success of a project should be monitored during the life of the project because it enables the project managers to make the necessary changes in the project design so as to increase stakeholder satisfaction.

Why do stakeholders need to be informed throughout the project? What are some effective ways to communicate with stakeholders?

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Project stakeholders are the people who are directly or indirectly involved in a project. They include the beneficiaries of the project, the donors, and other partners. All these stakeholders play a critical role in the implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of a project. For any project to be successful, there is a need to inform the stakeholders about the progress of the project throughout the project cycle (Roeder, 2013).

Before a project is started, stakeholders need to be aware of the rationale behind the project, the potential benefits, the scope of the project, and its side effects. This makes the project acceptable to the stakeholders and also reduces resistance by community members.

During the progress of a project, stakeholders need to be updated on what is achieved at each stage and what is not achieved, and why. This helps them appreciate the outcome even if it is not as envisioned at the start of the project. Failure to inform them may lead to suspicion and resistance especially if the project does not meet the desired objectives. At the end of the project, stakeholders need to be informed of the overall performance of the project as well as the areas of success and failure of the project (Eskerod & Jepsen, 2013).

Some effective ways to communicate with stakeholders include stakeholders meetings or workshops, community meetings, community sensitization, and through group infrastructure.

How do contractual relationships impact project initiation? What are the factors to be considered in a project contract? Why does the project team need to be aware of these contracts before they begin the project?

Contractual relationships are the agreements made between all stakeholders of a project. Most projects are funded by donors through individual organizations. For the donors to get the value of their money, they have to enter into an agreement with the implementing organizations. The contracts act as mitigation measures against misappropriation of funds by the implementing organizations because the contracts are legally binding, meaning that in case of any breach of a contract, legal action can be taken against the party who breaches the contract (Molenaar, 2007).

The factors to consider in a project contract include the targets of the project, the scope, the time frame of a project, and a budget outlining allowed and disallowed costs (Heldman & Mangano, 2009).

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The project team needs to be aware of all the contractual agreements before the beginning of a project because the contract affects them directly or indirectly. They also need to know the amount of money allocated for each project activity, the time frame for each activity, and what is expected from each project activity. Having knowledge of the contracts also helps the team members work together towards the achievements of the set goals and objectives (Brown & Hyer, 2010).

Compare the elements involved in project initiation. Are there any elements that are more important than others when looking at the initiation process? Explain your answer.

The elements of project initiation include the availability of funds, permits from the relevant authorities, baseline survey, stakeholders’ awareness, terms, and conditions of the project, and availability of human resources for project implementation. Availability of funds has to do with whether the implementing organization has the financial resources for the project and if it does not have them, whether it can source them elsewhere. Permits have to do with licenses or authorizations to implement a project. Before a project is initiated, there is a need to seek approval from environmental management authorities and also to have what is referred to as an environmental impact assessment of the project to know the social, psychological, and economic effects of the project on the people. Stakeholder awareness has to do with creating awareness about the project among the targeted beneficiaries while the terms and conditions of the project have to do with the contractual agreement between the stakeholders. Human resources are the people who are directly responsible for implementing the project. They need to have the necessary skills, education, and experience to implement the project (Remington & Pollack, 2007).

There are no elements that are important than others in the initiation of a project because each element plays a crucial role in the success of a project. If the project implementers overlook some elements and emphasize others, the project may not achieve its targeted objectives and therefore, it is important to consider all the elements at equal measure for the project to be successful.

References

Brown, K. A., & Hyer, N. L. (2010). Managing projects: A team-based approach. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Eskerod, P., & Jepsen, A.L. (2013). Project stakeholder management. Burlington, VT : Gower.

Heldman, K., & Mangano, V. (2009). PMP : project management professional exam review guide. Indianapolis, Ind.: Wiley Pub.

Margoluis, R., & Salafsky, N. (1998). Measures of success: designing, managing, and monitoring conservation and development projects. Washington, D.C.: Island Press.

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Molenaar, K.R. (2007). Alternative project delivery, procurement, and contracting methods for highways. Reston: American Society of Civil Engineers, cop.

Rad, P.F & Levin, G. (2003). Achieving project management success using virtual teams. Boca Raton, Flor: J. Ross.

Remington, K., & Pollack, J. (2007). Tools for complex projects. Burlington, VT: Gower.

Roeder, T.(2013). Managing project stakeholders: building a foundation to achieve project goals. Hoboken: Wiley.

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