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Pulmonary Hypertension Analysis

Introduction

Pulmonary hypertension, often abbreviated as PH, is a rare but life-threatening form of high blood pressure. According to Ogo (2020), the condition occurs when blood vessels in the lungs (pulmonary arteries) are clogged, narrowed, blocked, or destroyed. It creates a condition where the heart has to use extra force to pump blood into the lungs. The extra load damages heart muscles, especially in the right ventricle, causing weakening and enlargement of the organ and can lead to untimely death (Hodler et al., 2019). Once a person is diagnosed with this condition, they have to manage it through medication and a change of lifestyle. In this paper, the researcher seeks to investigate causes, pathophysiology, symptoms, and treatment for pulmonary hypertension.

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Pathophysiology

Pulmonary hypertension is one of the major life-threatening diseases, although it is rare. Ogo (2020) defines it as a condition that is characterized by narrowing of pulmonary arteries, causing stress on the heart muscles and can cause death. Although the primary cause of PH is unknown, Sergi (2019) explains that genetic mutation through the family tree may be one of the causes. Use of prescription drugs, abuse of hard drugs, congenital heart disease, and chronic conditions such as cirrhosis and HIV are also attributed to the condition. The condition starts when the pulmonary artery is narrowed. If nothing is done to correct it at an early stage, the narrowing will continue and the vessel may eventually be blocked. The heart responds to the problem by using extra force to ensure sufficient blood reaches the lung. As the condition progresses, the heart muscles start to weaken and the body becomes weak. Without proper management mechanisms, the heart can fail abruptly, leading to untimely death of the patient.

Signs and Symptoms

It is necessary to understand signs and symptoms of this disease. According to Hodler et al. (2019), some of the common symptoms of this disease include dyspnea (shortness of breath), dizziness, and chest pain, edema, cyanosis, and heart palpitations. Such a patient may frequently faint, complain of chest pain, and be fatigued even when they have not done anything physically or mentally demanding. Different tests can be used to diagnose the problem. One of them is chest X-ray that provides the picture of the heart. Right heart catheterization is another common approach that can be used to test for the condition. Other tests include electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiogram, or blood test.

Treatment

Managing of pulmonary hypertension is critical in enabling a patient to lead a normal life. Sergi (2019) observes that treatment often focuses on the underlying condition. In cases the diagnosis reveals that it was as a result of clotting of blood which eventually blocked pulmonary arteries, cardiologists often prefer using anticoagulant medicine such as warfarin that helps in preventing further clotting. Water tables, often known as diuretics may be used to eliminate excess fluid to prevent heart failure. For a patient struggling to breath, oxygen treatment may be necessary. Digoxin can help to strengthen the heart and slow the rate of pumping. It may be necessary to have a surgical procedure such as atrial septostomy, balloon pulmonary angioplasty, or pulmonary endarterectomy (Des et al., 2020). One may be put on strict diet with limited calories as a preventive measure when the condition is detected early.

Conclusion

Pulmonary hypertension is a life-threatening medical condition that may have devastating consequences on a patient. It is believed that drug abuse, genetics, heart diseases, and chronic conditions may cause PH. A patient may exhibit a wide range of symptoms and different tests may be conducted for its diagnosis. When managing the condition, the focus is always on its manifestation. The researcher chose this topic because the disease is life-threatening but it is less known.

References

Des, J. T., Burton, G. G., & Phelps, T. H. (2020). Clinical manifestations and assessment of respiratory disease (8th ed.). Elsevier.

Hodler, J., Kubik-Huch, R. A., & Schulthess, G. K. (Eds.). (2019). Diseases of the chest, breast, heart and vessels 2019-2022: Diagnostic and interventional imaging. Springer Open.

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Ogo, T. (2020). The evolving role of balloon pulmonary angioplasty in the management of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. 19 (1): 21–24.

Sergi, C. M. (2019). Diagnosis and management of pediatric diseases. Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute AG.

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StudyCorgi. (2022, July 7). Pulmonary Hypertension Analysis. Retrieved from https://studycorgi.com/pulmonary-hypertension-analysis/

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StudyCorgi. 2022. "Pulmonary Hypertension Analysis." July 7, 2022. https://studycorgi.com/pulmonary-hypertension-analysis/.

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StudyCorgi. (2022) 'Pulmonary Hypertension Analysis'. 7 July.

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