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Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches

The use of either qualitative or quantitative methodology in a study constitutes several research determinants. The present exploration is used to explain the concept behind the two articles by Le et al. (2018) and Kuo, Hiler and Lutz (2017), but not to position one item as superior to the other. In addition, both journals aimed to inquire about how actions or subjects are done and the reason such activities are applied. In essence, both methodologies contain massive gains as both articles are involving the study of a concept that has limited study. In an attempt to critically appraise the methodology applied to these articles, the current study explores the extent to which the magnitude and scale of research play in a society, regardless of the qualitative or quantitative data.

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Research Philosophies: Deductive and Inductive Approaches

Research philosophy plays a critical role in the appraisal of data. It is a belief concerning the manner of ways in which such information about a phenomenon should be collected, analyzed, and applied in real-life situations (Howitt, 2019). The term epistemology, which describes what is known to be true, encompasses the diverse forms of philosophies of research approaches. Without a philosophical basis, there is often the emergence of challenges during the analysis and interpretation of data (Wise and Shaffer, 2015; Gašević et al., 2016). In this regard, research philosophy is essential in the analysis, interpretation, and validation of data.

The deductive method to research philosophy uses a top-to-down method in piloting n investigation. For instance, in this approach, the procedure begins with a theoretical review, followed by hypothesis advancement, observation, and finally confirmation (Wardani and Kusuma, 2020). In other words, the model works from a more general approach to a specific one (Wardani and Kusuma, 2020). In this case, a conclusion based on findings usually logically accompanies available facts. However, the inductive approach is a research model that entails a bottom-to-up approach in directing an inquiry. For this model, the process comprises a theoretical framework followed by a tentative hypothesis, outline, and finally reflection (Wardani and Kusuma, 2020). Precisely, the design moves from a specific remark to a more general statement based on the final theory abstracted. The conclusion is based on the availability of facts established, though with some level of ambiguity.

The researchers use an inductive approach to analyze the participants’ open-ended responses, description of their association with video games, and their stand about the alteration or change of the phenomenon. Furthermore, the research by Kuo et al. (2017) seeks answers from the informants (video gamers) in their evidence and experience. Therefore, the established theory is influenced by the collected data. Various researchers use different study designs to explore a given occurrence. Kuo et al. (2017) applied the inductive method of rational reasoning which changes from a given principle to realize a valid conclusion. Kuo et al. (2017) assume that certain conflicts (experiences) cause a person to partake in doing a particular action (video gaming). Therefore, as described above, the inductive approach utilized a research design with a tentative hypothesis,

Conversely, a deductive research method applies a top-down approach of reason which swings from a piece of conventional evidence to accomplish a specific culmination. It is used to influence quantities, and the method inclines on proving that the existing theory is necessary (Wardani and Kusuma, 2020). For instance, in the research by Le et al. (2018), the investigators are concerned with the determination of proving how the forces affecting the perception of product comments on social media are based on the pre-existing theory, Social Information Processing Theory (SIPT). In this article, Le et al. (2018) review the existing literature works and cultivates pieces of evidence based on an empirically theoretical framework. Therefore, the deductive model advances assumptions based on the SIPT. Le et al. (2018) use information from Facebook participants to determine the differences concerning the perceptions of sWOM product. Hence, the assumptions are unoriginal as they are explicated from the theory.

Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods

To reflect on the possibility of using the first invention computer for a video game console is astonishing. Often, people relate video gamers to idlers who are busy clustering around device controllers feverishly directing a character on a screen. However, with the advancement of technology, such characters as depicted in videos have become more real and closer to the people than before. Therefore, using quantitative methodologies to investigate multi-billion dollar enterprises like the console is a sensational way to examine the evolution of this activity.

Quantitative research encompasses the use of numbers or figures to hypothesize about a given situation. The method examines research by performing multiple surveys from persons, in this case, video gamers. Therefore, the article by Kuo et al. (2017) provides objective arguments based on the collected data (interviews) to progress its agenda. Specifically, the approach centers on consumer studies while deliberating on the development of the intake of video games. For instance, it intensifies its quantitative approach by performing a face-to-face interview with such pro-gamers as Brady. Though Brady’s words, the audience of the article can perceive the revolution the video game has undergone over the years.

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One of the main approaches of the qualitative approach is asking questions in form of surveys or questionnaires. For instance, in the article by Kuo et al. (2018), the audience perceives how the industry has evolved through the years. Moreover, several statistical data are used to advance the dichotomy of quantitative research (Brunt, Horner and Semley, 2017). In essence, the removal of superficiality in different works is one of the major advantages of the approach. Hence, the delivery of facts eliminates any form of doubt that the audience may develop while reading the article. For instance, Kuo and colleagues, in their work, provides an approximation of the $100 million revenue venture video games have developed (Kuo et al., 2018). However, the research methodology was without weakness based on the number of participants, 23. The use of few research participants to hypothesize about a phenomenon reduces the study’s reliability (McDonald, Schoenebeck and Forte, 2019). For instance, by using only 23 informants, the researchers explored general information using the concept or ideas of few responses, thus one cannot use the finding to conclude a large population.

Conversely, qualitative research uses words and connotations by allowing an individual to sightsee concepts and experiences in depth. Qualitative methods are used to deliver a formless degree of evidence about why the occurrences exist the way they do and, to some extent, challenge human behavior (McDonald, Schoenebeck and Forte, 2019). Mostly the approach circumnavigates around the inquiry rather than developing a hypothesis and exploring evidence to back it up. The article by Le et al. (2017) uses qualitative research to understand a phenomenon. The researchers utilized the method to evaluate the influence behind the ascendancy of products whose marketing is furnished through word of mouth (Le et al., 2018). The extraordinary rise of social media has seen dealers inch their way into their context to encourage their product (Lou and Yuan, 2019; Munnukka, Uusitalo and Toivonen, 2016; De Veirman, Cauberghe and Hudders, 2017). Social media is no longer an instrument for announcement only but also an influential scheme for producer-consumer relationships (Munnukka, Uusitalo and Toivonen, 2016). Qualitative research was favored in the article by Le et al. (2017) due to its ability to exceed boundaries, whether geographical or ethnic, much like social media. Therefore, it has the competence of captivating a research issue into a hitherto unknown without the need for discrete interviews.

Exploratory and Descriptive Research Designs

In exploratory research design, the main focus of the study is usually about establishing an inquiry about a given product, how the product involves demands that advance its advertising, and how the current services can be upgraded. The research question in this form of design is limited to finding an alternative way that can be used to provide another more integrated strategy. In the article by Kuo et al. (2017), video games are distinctive in their aptitude to offer immersion, agency, and transformation (IAT) throughout the consumptive experience, thus offering benefits to people. Kuo et al. (2017) also use exploratory research design to detail the use of surveys, case studies, qualitative analyses to underscore the nature of displeasure or satisfaction the customers may attain for using the product (video game) in the case of marketing research, and therefore, hypothesis for this research article is unknown.

In descriptive research design, data is used to designate a particular behavior or the experience of subjects in the study. In this method, the researcher is not mandated to examine for particular causal relationships that exist between variables or their correlation. However, it is encountered with numerous setbacks, which derail the effect of identifying the cause because the research environment is natural. For instance, in the case of Le et al. (2017), predictor factors on the perception of product comments on social media provide a lot of essential information, which can only be acquired through the description (Wu and Lin, 2017). Moreover, for the determination of the identification of such variables as social media community, intimacy, dominance, and informality alleviate, and hypothetical construct, the perception of environmental uncertainty, a descriptive research design is vital (Le at al., 2017). Therefore, the design is important because it can be used to indirectly test the theory, SIPT, which cannot be reconnoitered through other non-descriptive means. The study embraces the use of surveys and observational studies, where the 408 participants were subjected to questionnaires and interviews in a natural environment.

Ethical Issues and Limitations in the two Articles

Ethical issues in research methodologies are a rising issue of concern, which require close consideration. Authors should provide well-researched concepts which are braced by evidence. However, the concept of ethical issues on honesty, privacy, and provision of confrontational or thoughts of incendiary often get blurry (Acevedo Pérez, et al., 2017). Arguably, any investigative technique has its limitations that can deter the concluded facts. For example, Kuo et al. (2018) uses social interest as used in the video game, making the application seem a paradox, yet proves at the end of it otherwise. According to Avecedo Pérez et al. (2017), such a paradigm as providing statements could be used to underpin the experiences of the research participants. For instance, some of the accomplices in the research such as Roger narrates how he prefers beating the alien as depicted in the Mass Effect three (Avecedo Pérez et al., 2017). In this case, such controversial options need to be protected by either not disclosing the name of the interviewee or using hidden codes to name the research participants.

Methodical reliability is questionably the indispensable ethical authentications typical of any research. For instance, the justification of integrity of related past articles conducted on the same topic and the enhancement of one’s current journal makes is contemptuous. For a valid article, marked consistency should be established if an ethical edit were to be carried out (Avecedo Pérez et al., 2017). Moreover, an inference based on conventional suggestions and theories should be discouraged. Le et al. (2017) rely heavily on the use of past literature as a basis for their arguments. All of its theories are verified in harmony with pre-existing research and do not lose focus from their original scripts. Le et al. (2017) also acknowledge its limitations with regards to their experiences while researching in Taiwan. Therefore, by using a convincing note, the researchers customize the maximum standard of conjuring pathos in ethics.

In conclusion, based on the above illustrations, the critical appraisal of the two research articles provides a current understanding of the various research methodologies as applied to both qualitative and quantitative research. The data from both researchers are used to underpin the research philosophies, thus helping to highlight the research as related to inductive and deductive research approaches. Moreover, the articles provide critical analysis of research designs descriptive and exploratory, though with a review of each ethical considerations and limitations, thus helping to note the credibility of each article.

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Reference List

Acevedo Pérez, I. et al. (2017) Seven ethical requirements for quantitative and qualitative research in nursing: experiences of three research ethics committees from Santiago, Chile, International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 7(7), 1-6.

De Veirman, M., Cauberghe, V., & Hudders, L. (2017) Marketing through Instagram influencers: the impact of number of followers and product divergence on brand attitude, International journal of advertising, 36(5), 798-828.

Gašević, D., Dawson, S., Rogers, T., and Gasevic, D. (2016) Learning analytics should not promote one size fits all: the effects of instructional conditions in predicting academic success, The Internet and Higher Education, 28(1), 68-84.

Howitt, D. (2019). Introduction to qualitative research methods in Psychology: Putting Theory into practice, 4th edition. London: Pearson Publishers.

Kuo, A., Hiler, J. and Lutz, R. (2017) From Super Mario to Skyrim: a framework for the evolution of video game consumption, Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 16(2), 101-120.

Le, A., Do, B., Azizah, N., Dang, R. and Cheng, J. (2018) Forces affecting perception of product comments on social-WOM: an interactive, relational communication perspective, Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 17(4), 393-406.

Lou, C. and Yuan, S. (2019) Influencer marketing: how message value and credibility affect consumer trust of branded content on social media, Journal of Interactive Advertising, 19(1), 58-73.

McDonald, N., Schoenebeck, S. and Forte, A. (2019) Reliability and inter-rater reliability in qualitative research: norms and guidelines for CSCW and HCI practice, Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction, 3(CSCW), 1-23.

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Munnukka, J., Uusitalo, O. and Toivonen, H. (2016) Credibility of a peer endorser and advertising effectiveness, Journal of Consumer Marketing, 33(3), 182-192.

Wardani, S. and Kusuma, I. (2020) Comparison of learning in inductive and deductive approach to increase student’s conceptual understanding based on international standard curriculum, Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 9(1), 70-78.

Wise, A.F. and Shaffer, D.W. (2015) Why theory matters more than ever in the age of big data, Journal of Learning Analytics, 2(2), 5-13.

Wu, T. and Lin, C. (2017) Predicting the effects of eWOM and online brand messaging: source trust, bandwagon effect and innovation adoption factors, Telematics and Informatics, 34(2), 470-480.

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