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Research on Pain Medication

Introduction

Quality healthcare is important in the development of the country. This is achieved through prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of various diseases (Houser, 2013). The role played by medical practitioners is crucial in the treatment process. This is because they play significant roles in administering treatment to patients. The ministry of healthcare focuses on improving healthcare facilities to ensure that diseases are managed at minimal pain (Houser, 2013).

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In addition, the government should offer education to citizens to enable them prevent diseases to mitigate the risks and effects of illnesses, reducing pain that would be experienced during medication (Houser, 2013). The education would enable them to make informed choices with regard to effective drug usage without abusing them (Houser, 2013).

Thus, it is vital for various stakeholders in the healthcare sector to play their roles in order to promote quality healthcare to citizens. This paper focuses on conducting a research project in pain medication. It concentrates on conducting literature reviews, collecting data and presenting it to disseminate information to medical practitioners with an aim demonstrating the significance of utilization of P1 4404 in pain management.

Background information to the topic

Many researchers have argued that good healthcare is critical for the development of the country. In addition, it is not only a fundamental right of every citizen, but also a necessity (Houser, 2013). Pain medication connotes different prescriptions and over the counter medication that are utilized in pain treatment (Houser, 2013). P1 4404 is an amino cyclohexanol analgesic with complementary mechanism that activate receptors and inhibits norepinephrine and serotonin (Houser, 2013).

A study conducted to demonstrate the effects of its use on AO pain have revealed that it has no adverse impacts and withdrawal symptoms (Simpson, Messina, Xie & Hale, 2007). Some medication interrupts pain signals leading to the production of an analgesic effect, while others have ant-inflammations element that is effective back inflammations (Hunter Medicare Local, 2011).

My choice was driven by the fact that there were many patients from my community who were experiencing pain, especially back pains that result from knees and hip pain. Therefore, I wanted to investigate how pain could be treated to increase life expectancy and help them to continue living. Moreover, I wanted to apply the knowledge I had acquired in real life situations. In addition, aimed at showing how effective a single dose injection of fP1 4404 was in the management of pain.

Notably, information related to pain management to both management team and patients is vital. However, the quality of healthcare has declined since the introduction of free healthcare services in many countries across the world. This is the case particularly in the pain management department. Despite the fact that pain management is essential for the success of the treatment process, governments have given a deaf ear to the deteriorating condition (Hunter Medicare Local, 2011).

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It is evident that many people live with chronic pains, and most of them end up losing their lives due to slow response of the management team (Simpson et la., 2007). The management teams have always pointed at the government’s failure of providing the necessary equipment that are vital in reducing pain. As a result, many countries lose many people every year.

For example, in 2008, 38, 234, 288, people both with chronic and minor pains died of the pain. In 2009, the number increased to 39, 334 289 (Hunter Medicare Local, 2011). The increase was attributed to many factors, such as the ignorance of some nurses, inadequate equipment, and patients being far from the nurses and healthcare facilities. This figure is worrying, and there is a need to put more effort in addressing the issue.

Hence, it is advisable for nurses to utilize many approaches to ease suffering and improve the quality of life for those who are living with pain. This fact is supported by Simpson and colleagues (2007) who argue that an important pain team management should employ different methods to help patients with both major and minor pains. The researchers continue to show that knowledgeable medical practitioners are more important than other factors because, without them, equipment cannot work alone without nurses.

An overview of a Multicenter, Randomized, Double-blind, and managed of P1 4404

The study was conducted in 40 sites in the United States of America. The choice of these sites was driven by the fact that there are many people who suffer from the back pains that result from leg pains. The forty sites were sampled, and each sample population was administered. 300 patients were enrolled in this study. 220 participants represented the treatment group, while 80 people acted as a control group. The population consisted of both males and females aged between 30 and 70 years at the time their consent of back pain was sought. Patients who were randomized to P1 4404 treatment received a single dose injection. The same was done with the control group.

The evaluation of the efficacy focused on primary and secondary results. The primary end point was manifested by a change in the worst pain enduring after 24 hours of assessment by VAS from a Serotine to the tenth week, while the secondary end point was indicated by the respondent’s evaluation after the tenth week after administration of the drug.

Patients were expected to meet four criteria, i.e., A, B, C and D. A- indicated 40% pain reduction by assessment done within a day. B-showed 40% improvement in the Disability Index and questionnaire, C-is a maintenance improvement of the neurologic status and D-indicated no treatment failure. Notably, all the assessments took place within ten weeks.

Moreover, after the administration of P1 4404, the occurrence of unpleasant events, vital changes in clinical laboratory tests, and changes in important signs from baseline through the tenth week were assessed. In addition, serumanti-SI-6603 immunoglobulin and antibody, and the re-occurrence of post-treatment surgery effects were evaluated.

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It is important to point out that the statistical methods were two-sided and were conducted on the basis 5% significance. The assessed population consisted of safety, where the chosen population from either group were treated with an investigational drug, Intent-To-Teat (ITT) in which all the population that was chosen and treated with an investigational drug, and Per-Protocol (PP) referring to the group with major protocol deviation.

The analysis was conducted on the ITT population using a longitudinal mixed- effect model repeated measures (MMRM). The model integrated baseline values of VAS pain scores and the duration of leg pain. The efficacy analysis was employed to analyze the changes in the worst leg after the assessment for the start of the exercise through week 10. The primary effectiveness was evaluated by getting the difference of the least square means between P1 4404 and control group.

Objectives of the study

The main objective of the study was to demonstrate the effectiveness and safety of a single-dose injection of P1 4404 in controlling some lower back pains in patients. This study evaluated changes in worst pains in legs 24 hours after assessment by a visual analgesia scale from a seronite week 13 after investigations on administration of P1 4404. The study also showed pain control procedures in pain management. In addition, it demonstrated the efficacy and safety P1 4404 drug

Literature review

Many people in the United States (US) have demonstrated signs and symptoms of back pain (Moore, Verdoux, & Fantino, 2005). This has made it an important public health issue among the musculoskeletal disorder. A study conducted to investigate the signs and symptoms of the back pain established that it is characterized by signs and symptoms, such as stiffness, swelling, reduced movement, deformities, and instability (Moore et al., 2006).

In addition, the researchers contended that the majority of the US citizens, especially the elderly experience pain with limited functionality due to leg OA. The age of patients lies between 66 and 74 years old, which rise every year to more than 19 percent (Moore et al., 2006). This study is important in helping the nurses understand signs and symptoms that are manifested by people with people experiencing medical pain.

According to Schwartz (2013), current pain management focuses on inflamed parts, relieving of pain, and increasing joint function and minimizing disability. The knowledge about the focus is crucial in understanding the emphasis that is meant to reduce the cost incurred. The newspaper indicates that the cost incurred by OA patients who have knees and hips is estimated to be $ 12, 200 per person every year (Schwartz 2013).

In the field of nursing, this study is significant in helping medical practitioners to help the government in planning for funds that would be used in purchasing drugs that would be required.

The interview was conducted to investigate the most vulnerable group of medical pain. The interview was among the three people. From the interview, it was clear that the aged were more vulnerable to back pain than the youths, who complained of minor back pain (H. Clifford, personal communication, Nov 22, 2014). This demonstrated that the aged were more vulnerable to back pain than the youth. The interview played a key role providing first-hand information to nurses.

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In the Another study conducted to compare P1 4044 and P1 4404 with regard to its availability and their effectiveness established that P1 4044 has three to four longer half-life, i.e., 16 hours versus 4hour to 6 hours (Breedveld et al., 2006). This implies that P1 4404 should be given three times daily to have equal absorption with P1 4044 (Breedveld et al., 2006).

In relation to their effectiveness, the researchers demonstrated that when both are used to treat patients with OA, P1 4044 took more doses and pain relieving was easier than patients taking P1 4404. In addition, the study showed that P1 4044 relieved pain a whole day without indicating any sign of analgesic failure (Beedveld et al., 2006). The research study helps medical personnel to choose the best type of the drug.

Researchers’ experience

From the research project, we gained a lot of knowledge from the research project. First, the procedures that are involved in the management of medical pain would be vital in helping them handle similar cases. This is so, particularly when handling chronic pain in elderly patients. We have also learned that it is important to acknowledge the contribution made by others in the development of the processes involved in the treatment. In addition, we have gained much from the interview conducted.

This is for the reason that the participants were able to give their views on the issue under investigations. Participants also demonstrated different attitudes towards the P1 4044. The results from the two investigational drugs, i.e., P1 4044 and P1 4404 differed. This should thatP1 4404 was more effective than P1 4044. Thus, as nurses we would apply the drug that was effective in reducing pain. A study that established that the government is spending huge sums of money helped us much.

We would use the information to inform the administration to introduce reforms that would be critical in helping the medical practitioners to reduce pain while reducing the cost. The project indicated that other drugs have impacted negatively on patients. It is worth noting that the study that was conducted to find out signs and symptoms of medical pain helped us to understand the signs that are associated with disease, making it easy to diagnose the pain.

Summary/ future plan/ recommendations

Medical pain is dangerous, especially to the elderly in many countries across the world. A randomized, controlled, and double-blinded P1 44 04 plays a critical role as aforementioned, in the management of pain. Many studies have demonstrated that its use does not have adverse effects, and it is fast in reducing pain.

If administered in the correct way, it can be used to handle most of the cases that are related to medical pain. It is the responsibility of every stakeholder to play his or her role to promote good healthcare with regard to medical pain. This would result in reduced suffering and increased life expectancy. It is recommended that similar studies should be conducted, and increase the number of the participants. The duration of the research project and for individual patients should be increased to enable the researchers to investigate the issue deeply.

It is suggested that different models of analysis should be utilized for the researchers to compare the results yielded by different models. Furthermore, the process of writing the project as a whole is of great significant. This is because group members can comfortably write research projects that can be of relevance to different institutions in the society in relation to medical pain.

References

Breedveld, F. C., Weisman, M. H., Kavanaugh, A. F., Cohen, S. B., Pavelka, K., Vollenhoven, R. V.,… & Spencer‐Green, G. T. (2006). The PREMIER study: a multicenter, randomized, double‐blind clinical trial of combination therapy with adalimumab plus methotrexate versus methotrexate alone or adalimumab alone in patients with early, aggressive rheumatoid arthritis who had not had previous methotrexate treatment. Arthritis & Rheumatism, 54(1), 26-37.

Houser, J. (2013). Nursing research: Reading, using and creating evidence. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Hunter Medicare Local (executive producer). (2011). Understanding Pain: What to do about it in less than five minutes. (DVD). New York, NY: Hunter Medicare.

Moore, N., Verdoux, H., & Fantino, B. (2005). Prospective, multicentre, randomized, double-blind study of the efficacy of escitalopram versus citalopram in outpatient treatment of major depressive disorder. International clinical psychopharmacology, 20(3), 131-137.

Schwartz, T., (2013). Beating Back Pain. The New York Times. Web.

Simpson, D. M., Messina, J., Xie, F., & Hale, M. (2007). Fentanyl buccal tablet for the relief of breakthrough pain in opioid-tolerant adult patients with chronic neuropathic pain: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Clinical therapeutics, 29(4), 588-601.

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