The theoretical concepts of nursing care models are closely related to practice. Many of the models have been developed by nurse practitioners who based their theories on real-world contexts. It is important for registered nurses to observe and apply nursing care models in workplace settings to identify positive characteristics as well as factors needing improvement. This report will focus on observing a nursing care model in practice and researching scholarly perspectives on a wide variety of theories.
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The Roy Adaptation Model is one of the most popular and easily implemented models in healthcare to direct the nursing practice of individual patients. The observed healthcare setting was a geriatric ward in a hospital. Elderly patients with a wide variety of conditions ranging from acute multiple sclerosis to osteoporosis and Alzheimer’s disease were present. Nurses in the department have been trained to utilize the Roy Adaptation Model as the basis for their practice. This includes that a nurse takes an individual approach to each patient in order to examine the physiologic, role function, self-concept, and interdependence modes of adaptation of functioning in their environment.
For physiologic aspects, nurses work with the patient to teach them about their conditions and present strategies for managing the disease through adherence to medication and lifestyle. Role function and self-concept are psychological perspectives that nurses attempt to help the elderly with but guiding them to activities that may help with maintaining health and health education as well as finding a place in the community.
For interdependence, nurses encourage seniors to form friendships with whom they can engage in health-related activities and provide support for each other. It was evident that through the use of this model, nurses were able to connect with patients as well as provide personalized care that led to improved outcomes.
The Roy Adaptation Model was developed in the 1960s on the premise that nursing is a scientific and humanistic profession. Therefore, nurses are expected to use specialized knowledge and evidence-based research to contribute to the health and well-being of patients, with the primary purpose to increase compliance with treatment. The model presents the metaparadigm of treatment which consists of a person, environment, health, and nursing.
While the person is a biopsychosocial being is in continuous interaction with the environment that is contextual and residual stimuli. Meanwhile, health is the dimension of life that represents the health-disease continuum. Nursing is a science that is meant to ensure health through adaptation modes of physiologic, self-concept, role function, and interdependence (Ursavaş, Karayurt, & İşeri, 2014). A nurse’s primary purpose is to provide care and ensure that a patient adapts in the interaction with the environment and physical body, thus promoting health.
The Roy Adaptation Model in practice follows a process that begins with input which evaluates the stimuli adaptation level. The control processes such as coping mechanisms are determined. Coping processes consist of two sub-systems. A regulator subsystem is based on neurochemical and endocrine levels. Meanwhile, a cognate subsystem is based on memory, learning, and attention. The effectors based on adaptation modes are implemented with the patient based on individual needs. The output should consist of adaptive responses. Ineffective responses can be used as feedback to provide a different approach to the issue. Therefore, The Roy Adaptation Model identifies and promotes a patient’s adaptive behaviors through an intervention that would ensure adherence and health (Saini, Sharma, Arora, & Khan, 2017).
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Pender’s health promotion model emphasizes the role of behavior in the context of health promotion as influenced by social learning and reasoned action. This is defined as a desired behavioral outcome as a result of decision-making. Health is defined as a dynamic state which consists of a person’s interaction with the environment resulting in a specific level of well-being. Therefore, health behaviors are unique, dependent on personal characteristics that affect actions.
The model is meant to assist nurses in understanding the primary determinants of human health behaviors that can be used to develop interventions for the promotion of health and subsequent lifestyles. A nurse can determine variables that guide behavior and modify them through interventions that create motivational influence for change in the patient to reach the desired outcome. Biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors all play a role in shaping past and current health behaviors and have a direct effect on a patient’s engagement in health promotions (McCutcheon, 2014).
In practice, Pender’s health promotion model is associated with patient education. The model, competently implemented, leads to positive long-term behavior changes for chronic conditions. In diseases such as obesity, the model is beneficial for management and adherence to lifestyle changes that promote overall health behaviors. Educational and follow-up programs based on this model are effective at addressing critical aspects of determinants that may influence behaviors.
Concepts such as social support, self-efficacy, and perceived benefits or barriers to engaging in interventions are focused on by the health promotion model in the attempt to offer guidance to patients (Fidanci, Akbayrak, & Arslan, 2017). The health promotion model is commonly implemented in public health initiatives, designed to create positive health behavior changes in mass populations. This model is utilized in campaigns to prevent obesity, limit substance abuse, and promote healthy sexual behaviors amongst many other examples. Interventions include education and workshops that seek to advertise the benefits of healthy living.
Model to Improve Quality
The Lean Six Sigma model focuses on optimizing the process of healthcare delivery by eliminating waste and defects. The model is valuable in improving the care process, patient safety, and reducing critical errors or unnecessary expenses. The Six Sigma model follows five steps to improve quality. First, the problem is defined by identifying patients, their needs, and the objectives of the facility. The second step is a measure that consists of determining what an improvement would measure and how it would impact the organization’s performance. The next stage is data collection and analysis through the use of reliable tools.
The improvement stage then occurs to implement interventions or modifications that would enhance the process. Finally, the last step is the control which is to monitor performance in the long term (Hultman et al., 2016). The model is widely applicable, affecting anything ranging from nursing errors to reduced wait times and accelerating lab results. However, the process overall is increased as essential factors for quality improvements are addressed.
Nursing models incorporate fundamental values and concepts which are essential to providing competent and effective care in modern facilities. This report identified how the Roy Adaptation Model was used to aid patients in adapting to their environment from a variety of modes. Pender’s health promotion model was examined which sought to identify behavioral determinants that could be influenced to create positive lifestyle changes. Finally, the Six Sigma model is necessary for the improvement of quality by identifying and solving a problem on a step-by-step basis. Nurses can use these models in the delivery of care to ensure optimal patient outcomes.
Fidanci, B. E., Akbayrak, N., & Arslan, F. (2017). Assessment of a health promotion model on obese Turkish children. Journal of Nursing Research, 25(6), 436-446. Web.
Hultman, C. S., Kim, S., Lee, C. N., Wu, C., Dodge, B., Hultman, C. E.,… Halvorson, E. G. (2016). Implementation and analysis of a Lean Six Sigma program in microsurgery to improve operative throughput in perforator flap breast reconstruction. Annals of Plastic Surgery, 76(S4), S352-S356. Web.
McCutcheon, T. (2014). concept analysis: Health-promoting behaviors related to Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) Infection. Nursing Forum, 50(2), 75-82. Web.
Saini, N., Sharma, V., Arora, S., & Khan, F. (2017). Roys Adaptation Model: Effect of care on pediatric patients. International Journal of Nursing & Midwifery Research, 4(1), 52-60. Web.
Ursavaş, F. E., Karayurt, Ö., & İşeri, Ö. (2014). Nursing approach based on Roy Adaptation Model in a patient undergoing breast conserving surgery for breast cancer. The Journal of Breast Health, 10(3), 134–140. Web.