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Skin Functions and Risk Factors

The skin is the most critical and largest human organ. It provides a connection of the body with the surrounding nature and is also a feature that distinguishes one person from another. Moreover, it supports the homeostasis of body temperature, and changes in this indicator are called hypo and hyperthermia. The study of skin risk factors that can lead to severe consequences, such as cancer, hypo, and hyperthermia, are of critical importance for human health.

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Regulation and control of the body’s heat balance are of high importance. Therefore, if this indicator is violated, either hyperthermic or hypothermic states develop. An increase in body temperature characterizes the first, more than 106F, and hypothermic – a decrease below 95F. When the body temperature decreases, the blood flow in the internal organs increases, muscle tremors occur, and diuresis increases. The main symptoms of hyperthermia are general weakness, rapid breathing, tachycardia, increased sweating, and fainting. The organism secretes a large number of hormones to increase the body’s protective functions, thereby fighting these two phenomena.

The color of people’s skin reflects the evolutionary development that has been taking place for many tens of thousands of years. Most scientists note that the skin tone changes due to a global gradient. Thus the darkest populations are located around the equator and the lightest near the poles. A significant role is assigned to such a component of human skin as melanin; the more it is in the skin, the darker the color.

Skin cancer is considered to be a malignant neoplasm of epithelial cells. They are a severe threat to human health. At the same time, skin cancer refers to oncological pathologies that can be easily detected and treated in a timely manner. The leading causes of this disease are sunburn, intense sunburn, congenital nevi, injury to the skin, especially birthmarks, and increased sensitivity to ultraviolet light. Melanoma, as a type of skin cancer, is the most aggressive (Carr et al., 2020). The human body reacts poorly to this tumor, so it develops rapidly. Skin melanoma requires complex treatment, which includes radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Prevention of this severe disease is reduced by limiting exposure to the sun and reducing risk factors for the skin.

Basal cell carcinoma is the most friendly type of tumor. It does not have clear stages of development; however, this tumor quickly destroys the surrounding tissues and often gives relapses. Depending on the type and condition of the disease, individual treatment is selected. Thus, surgical intervention is considered the most effective. The surgeon excises the neoplasm and puts stitches on the wound, and the removed tissues are sent to the laboratory for examination. Radiation therapy can also give quite high results. Such treatment is most often recommended for elderly patients, with the location of the focus on the face.


Carr, S., Smith, C., & Wernberg, J. (2020). Epidemiology and risk factors of melanoma. Surgical Clinics, 100(1), 1-12. Web.

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