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Sociolinguistics and Its Fundamental Concepts

Performance is the use of knowledge, skills, and abilities to accomplish any work. The performance also shows how a question of ethnic identity can be linked to humor. It also helps in a proper understanding of the building of “white” as an ethnicity. Performance also helps in an essential part of building Indian ethnicity. Performance can describe group standards through enacting their opposites, sending the message (Hill, 2008). Competence means having adequate skills, knowledge, and capacity that enhances human’s ability to perform a task. Linguistic competence is in contradiction with linguistic performance. Linguistic competence is the language precisely as it is in the human mind, while linguistic performance is the language that human speaks. Linguistic performance is restricted while linguistic competence is infinite. Performance limitation at times creates grammatical ambiguity, which is the existence of two or more meanings within one sentence, and misunderstanding.

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Prescriptivism is the concept that is all about inflicting some rules on the operation of language. According to this idea, people impose regulations to use the correct language during communication (Hill, 2008). These rules may include vocabulary or spelling. These rules are grouped into two constitutive laws and regulative rules. Regulative rules are assigned agreements. They are entrenched and sustained artificially. Constitutive rules are submitted observations. These rules occur and are supported naturally.

Descriptivism deals with the analysis of simple language that native speakers exercise without emphasizing correct or proper use. A good example is a language spoken by a group of people in the same age group in the same area (Hill, 2008). Both prescriptivism and descriptivism are engaged with the shape of language. Prescriptivism deals with how the language must be used, while descriptivism deals with how the language is used. Descriptive concentrates on how local and non-local speakers use language without observing norms or references of the correctness of rules. Prescriptivism concentrates more on imposing standards of correctness and setting constraints followed by the people using the language (Hill, 2008). In descriptivism, rules are made each day using the language by the local or non-local speakers. In prescriptivism, rules governing the language and set of standards are specified. In descriptivism, language usage change according to the speakers meaning it does not follow norms. In prescriptivism, language must follow grammar restrictions set by the native speakers of the language.

Language is a way through which people change or can their information with other people. Communication is the process by which information is conveyed from one person to another. Language is an arrangement of communication that depends predominantly on non-verbal or verbal codes to give the information. Communication is how people exchange information or messages between more people or two, emphasizing the message (Hill, 2008). Language is an instrument of communication. Communication is the way of exchanging messages or information. The methods of communication do not change. Language everyday new day new words are added to the dictionary (Hill, 2008). Language changes incrementally since new words are formed. Communication is termed static; this is because the steps and methods remain the same. For example, in any language, English, French, Chinese, sign language, or any language, people learn to convey a particular message to another person who knows the same language. The language here is termed as the instrument of communication. For instance, if someone wants to say “am here,” they can use any language to convey the message, but communication is all about the information, not the language.


Hill, J. (2008). RacismThe Everyday Language of White Racism. Hilla John Wiley & Sons Publication.

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