Numerous changes that continue in the environment take place over a long time. Sustainable agriculture provides a long-term impact on the agro-ecosystem. It aims to produce food in an environmentally friendly environment that prevents depletion of soil fertility or pest problems. This area uses a proactive approach as opposed to solving problems after they have arisen. It is helpful in different aspects and can be beneficial for ecology since the number of resources is currently decreasing (Ke and Ford-Jones, 2015). Sustainable agriculture is one way to reduce food insecurity without harming the planet.
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Land use practices such as sowing rotation, the cultivation of catch crops, symbiotic varieties, the cultivation of cover crops, the use of fertilizers, and minimal tillage are the crucial methods of organic farming. They develop soil flora and fauna used, improve soil composition, and provide more stable ecosystems. As a result of this approach, the turnover of nutrients and energy and the soil’s ability to retain moisture and nutrients increase. This compensates for the refusal to use mineral fertilizers (Carlisle et al., 2019). Such land-use practices also play an important role in combating soil erosion. Thus, it is possible to grow food in the same territory for a longer time, making it more accessible to consumers.
The use of fertilizer and pesticide systems is a critical issue. They are prohibited in sustainable agriculture, so synthetics are replaced with organic fertilizers. Together with the use of more biodiversity of cultivated crops, this contributes to the structure of soil improvement and water infiltration. Correct management of organic systems improves nutrient retention capacity. In some regions where environmental pollution is a noticeable issue, switching to organic agriculture is highly desirable as a remedial measure.
Sustainable agriculture lowers the use of non-renewable energy sources, reducing agrochemical needs. In this way, it contributes to the fight against global warming through practices that lead to carbon sequestration in the soil. These measures increase carbon return to the ground, increasing its capacity to store it. Hence, the soil remains fertile for much longer, the food production system expands.
Sustainable agriculture farmers are both custodians and users of biodiversity at all levels. At the genetic level, adapted seed varieties and livestock breeds are preferred. They can resist disease and are more adaptable to climatic stress conditions. Frequent use of rarely used species increases agro-biodiversity erosion and creates a healthy gene pool: the basis for adaptation of future varieties and species. Establishing a food and shelter system, coupled with the avoidance of pesticide use, is conducive to attracting new and renewable organic colonies and beneficial to organic body systems such as pollinators and phages (Kesselman, Ngcoya and Casale, 2020). Consequently, it is possible to preserve entire ecosystems for a long time, which helps produce particular food products.
Sustainable agriculture has a positive impact on natural resources and supports interactions within the agro-ecosystem. This is vital both for the protection of agricultural production and for nature. Thus, factors that positively affect the environment are the formation, conditioning, and stabilization of the soil, waste processing, the use of carbon, circulating substances, pollination, and environmental protection. By choosing an organic product in the store, the consumer contributes to the agricultural system’s development, which reduces environmental pollution and makes food more accessible.
Carlisle, L., et al. (2019). Transitioning to sustainable agriculture requires growing and sustaining an ecologically skilled workforce. Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems, 3. DOI: 10.3389/fsufs.2019.00096
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Ke, J., & Ford-Jones, E. (2015). Food insecurity and hunger: a review of the effects on children’s health and behaviour. Pediatrics Children Health, 20(2), 89-91. DOI: 10.1093/pch/20.2.89
Kesselman, B., Ngcoya, M., & Casale, D. (2020). The challenge posed by urban dietary norms to the practice of urban agroecology. Agroecology and Sustainable Foor Production, 45(4), 480-498, DOI: 10.1080/21683565.2020.1816593