Enterprise crime is the crime in which money is obtained illegally. Actually, this kind of crime is done very slowly by taking many years. It does not cause any violence. The main aim of this crime is to make money. According to the article ‘Enterprise Crime targets nation’s Economy’ published on the website says “Enterprise Crime” now engages in a mixture of cooperation and competition both with governments and the larger business community. Their growing power is based on their capacity to exploit (rather than disrupt) legitimate business and financial activities, and their ability to corrupt Government and law enforcement agencies.” (Enterprise Crime Targets Nation’s Economy).
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An example of an enterprise crime is the Enron scandal.
To discuss the relation of syndicated and organized crime with governmental crime, White Collar Crime, and financial crime, one needs to understand the definition of each crime separately.
In the book named Criminal Behavior written by Elaine Cassel, Douglas A. Bernstein clearly mentioned the syndicated crime as “Syndicated crime involves a network of individuals and businesses systematically engaged in a variety of criminal enterprises including the sale and distribution of drugs, gambling, extortion, prostitution, loan sharking, and labor racketeering.” (Cassel, and Bernstein, 229). All kinds of activities and issues mentioned above enhanced by the individual or group of persons are categorized under syndicated crime.
The website of the FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation) clearly mentioned that “organized crime as any group having some manner of a formalized structure and whose primary objective is to obtain money through illegal activities. Such groups maintain their position through the use of actual or threatened violence, corrupt public officials, graft, or extortion, and generally have a significant impact on the people in their locales, region, or the country as a whole.” (Organized crime).
What it says are people or groups who are making money in an illegal manner, such as, through corruption, threatening the people by making violence in the locality, etc. Also, it can be through doing widespread criminal activities such as prostitution, interstate theft, cargo theft, fraud, robbery, kidnapping and illegal gambling.
Governmental crime can be such that frauds are committed in government programs such as housing programs, agricultural programs, educational programs, etc by way of bribery in contract works, double billing, etc.
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It is a non-violent crime committed by individuals or office workers. Its main purpose is making a financial gain or making money illegally. It is done by tricking the people who belong to professional or semi-professional status.
It can be defined as a crime against the property; it can be the conversion of someone’s property into their own without the knowledge of the owner. It is done through fraud. There are different types of financial crimes, such as credit card fraud, medical fraud, corporate fraud, currency fraud, etc. These kinds of crimes affect private individuals, companies, organizations, etc.
The relation of syndicated and organized crime with governmental crime, White Collar Crime, and finance crime
The main motto of all these crimes is just to make money illegally. From the definition of white-collar crime, it is clear that it is a crime performed by an individual or group of persons through enterprise. So it can be linked with organized crime or syndicate crime because to make any manipulation requires lots of thinking and the idea might be of more than one person. So it will be an organized activity and also they are looting the government by making manipulations in records and documents. These people commit fraud in financial activities and so it is a financial crime. As such, these crimes are related.
The parallels between these professional criminals and white-collar offenders
Contrepreneurial crime is another name of professional crime. It is the crime done by professional criminals. They do this crime after proper planning. The main attribute of these criminals is they won’t keep behind any kind of evidence so that it is very difficult for the investigators to find any clue for such crime. The parallels between professional criminals and white-collar offenders are professional criminals always admit they are thieves, but the white-collar offenders always pretend they are honest persons. The professional criminal always calculates the pros and cons of the crime he undertakes but white-collar offenders do the crime (violate the rules) during their working in the office.
The specific facets of the modern technology/computer revolution which promote White Collar Crimes
Modern computer technology has opened the door for doing white-collar crimes very easily. The method to enhance this crime is by means of phishing. It is a technique to acquire the personal details of a person by sending spam emails. The sender will pretend to be the legitimate enterprise or the organization. The mail will prompt the user to enter personal information such as passwords, credit card numbers, social security and bank account numbers, etc.
Facts to impose constraints on such crime is first to make the people aware of the spam mails. If anyone receives any suspicious mail put it in the junk folder without opening it. Also, be aware that none of the enterprises or financial institutions will ask for personal information. Most of the enterprises or institutions inform the customers that they will never ask the customers about their personal information through email or phone.
The basic attributes of these crimes are their motives and the cunningly devised methods to execute the crime. The chief motive is not murder or physically harming others. The shrewdness underlying in man’s brain when directs towards satisfying greed takes the form of these crimes. Planning and execution take time and are not done out of impulse. The main objective of these criminals is making money by adopting any means but the methods vary. While enterprise crime uses an organized structure in corrupting the system other two forms of crimes don’t rely much on this. These forms of crime intersect in their nature of exploitation rather than creating disruptions in the community. Technology is widely used in present-day enterprise crime and contrepreneurial crime.
Cassel, E., and Bernstein, D A. Criminal Behavior: syndicated crime. Routledge. 2nd edition. 2007.
Enterprise Crime Targets Nation’s Economy. SATP. 2001.
Organized crime: Glossary: Organized Crime. Federal Bureau of Investigation. 2009.