The language-free measure of reasoning, aptitude, and intelligence is referred to as the test of nonverbal intelligence (TONI Test). The test is intended to be used by people from the age of six years up to ninety years. The TONI-3 test takes less than twenty minutes. Toni-3 is a revision of Toni-2 and uses the same response format. The examiner administers the test by pantomime, whereby the expected response from the subject is to point at the correct item.
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The TONI-3 test is standardized and comes with an examiner manual that contains the precise measures for giving the test, scoring, and result in analysis (DeMauro, 2001).
Administration of the test
The TONI-3 test can be given by either a professional or a paraprofessional, who has received official education in psychological evaluation (Brown, Sherbenou, & Johnsen, 1997). Interpretation of the test results should follow all the steps indicated in the manual. The subjects can perform the test either as individuals or in groups, whereby they are provided with a sequence of conceptual figures with voids, whereby the subject selects an appropriate figure to finish it (Brown, Sherbenou, & Johnsen, 1997).
During the test, the clinician is not allowed to communicate verbally, but by use of figures and expressions, when praising or asking for a response. Items are arranged in order from simple to complex in the two forms, A and B, and the assessment does not include any subtests. The test ceases after three wrong responses in five successive items. The test begins at the mark indicating the age margin, which depends on the alleged rational impairment, proficiency in training stimuli, and age of the subject. The basal is determined by five correct responses (DeMauro, 2001). Subjects are allowed to re-test, whereby the first test is administered using form A, and the subsequent ones using form B.
The relevant form is marked with a cross, and the right response is scored ‘1’ and a wrong one ‘0’, with the total score in a row being the sum of correct responses between the basal and final response (Liu, 2010). This sum is converted to percentile scores and deviation quotients using comprehensive tables in the manual (Liu, 2010). The standard score form yielded by TONI-3 is a standard deviation of 15 and a mean of 100 (Atlas, 2001).
General Test Information
The complete tool kit for TONI-3 includes a manual, a picture book, 50 forms A answer sheets, and 50 form B answer sheets. The complete kit goes for the price of $256.00. The tool kit was written by three authors namely Susan Johnson, Rita Sherbenou, and Linda Brown. The publisher of the tool kit is Pro-Ed, whose location address in Austin, Tx78757 is 8700 Shoal Creek Boulevard (Brown, Sherbenou, & Johnsen, 1997).
Description of the tool
The tool kit targets problem solving and abstract reasoning to measure general intelligence. It is used to conduct research, to identify intellectual impairment in individuals, and to assess the effects of neurological conditions such as motor, language, and cognitive impairments. It also evaluates the skill solving novel abstract of an individual to estimate their intellectual competence. Examples of tests are the Piaget, for accommodation, assimilation, and organization, and the spearman for g-factor, which follow researched and well-known theoretical models of intelligence. The age of the subjects ranges from six years and zero months to 89 years and 11 months.
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Discussion and Critique of the test
The TONI-test is advantageous because it is easy to administer and score. Its two test forms are also useful for pre and post-test measures. Another of its strengths is that it can be used with culturally diverse individuals. It can also be used with individuals whose expressive language and receptivity are extremely limited. The weaknesses of the test include its specific measurement, its inability to determine the need for services by itself, and its lack of guidance for intervention planning. Cognitive communication involves organization, abstract reasoning, problem-solving, memory, and attention (DeMauro, 2001).
A sample of over 3,400 subjects was used to standardize the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence, third edition (Atlas, 2001). Demographic variables including physical location, place of residence, type of disability, race, and gender, and age bracket were used to stratify the individuals (Curtin, 1952). The subjects in the sample were English speaking Americans (Atlas, 2001). To make the sample appropriate, the subjects used in the sample were of the required age bracket, between the ages of six and eighty-nine years (Atlas, 2001). The potential bias of the study was found to be inconsequential.
Limitations of the Test
The TONI-3 test should be used as a secondary test to a broader in-depth intelligence test since it is based on a single variable of intelligence, namely figurative problem solving, which is a fast evaluation of intelligence (Curtin, 1952). Other shortcomings include the absence of norms for disability groups, the absence of Australian norms, its ineffectiveness for the visually impaired, and the awkwardness of the test when administered to gifted subjects (Atlas, 2001). The test is also inadequate for people with disabilities since it fails to outline their strengths and weaknesses, and therefore offers no solutions, when compared to other more comprehensive tests (DeMauro, 2001).
TONI-3 has a unique format. This makes it possible to examine the intellectual capacity of problematic individuals. The tool kit was aimed at developing an intelligence test that did not involve cultural, motoric, and linguistic elements. Since the test is nonverbal, it ensures that the results remain unaffected by impaired motor abilities, poor English, or impaired language skills (Liu, 2010). The variety of subjects who can be assessed include victims of brain injury or stroke, the mentally retarded, those whose learning is disabled, those with impaired language or speech, and those who are bilingual or non-English speaking (Atlas, 2001).
Atlas, J. (2001). Review of the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence, Third Edition. Mental Measurements Yearbook, 14.
Brown, L., Sherbenou, R., & Johnsen, S. (1997). Test of Nonverbal Intelligence, Third Edition Examiner’s Manual. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.
Curtin, J. T. (1952). A factor analysis of verbal and non-verbal tests of intelligence (The Catholic University of America. Educational research monographs). Washington D.C.: Catholic University of America Press.
DeMauro, G. (2001). Review of the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence, Third Edition. Mental Measurements Yearbook, 14.
Liu, H. C.-E. (2010). Non-verbal intelligence tests for use in China. Charleston, S.C.: Nabu Press.