Cancer is considered to be the leading cause of death worldwide. The most common cancers are breast cancer, lung and bronchus cancer, and colorectal cancer. In 2018, the cancer incidence rate was 439 per 100,000 males and females, and the cancer mortality rate was 163 per 100,000 males and females (National Cancer Institute, 2018). The breast cancer incidence rate is 125 per 100,000 females, and the mortality rate is 21 per 100,000 females (American Cancer Society, 2019a, p. 7).
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Per 100,000 males, the incidence and mortality rates of lung and bronchus cancer are 72 and 52, respectively. The incidence rates of colorectal cancer are 45.2 for males and 34.3 for females (American Cancer Society, 2019a, p. 7). The mortality rates of colorectal cancer are 16.9 for males and 11.9 for females.
Among factors contributing to the annual incidence and death rates of breast cancer are being female, obesity, increasing age, radiation exposure, alcohol consumption, and a personal history of breast conditions. Factors contributing to an increase in the incidence and mortality rates of lung and bronchus cancer include smoking, exposure to second-hand smoking, as well as exposure to certain hazardous chemicals (such as asbestos and carcinogens) (American Cancer Society, 2019b).
Older age, family history of colorectal cancer, a lack of physical exercise, obesity, and race are risk factors that contribute to the yearly incidence and death rates of colorectal cancer. For all types of cancer discussed above, engaging in risky sexual activities and drinking alcohol are risk factors.
The Nursing Process
The nursing process for patients with cancer consists of five stages, which are assessment, diagnosis, planning outcomes, the implementation of a care plan, and the evaluation of outcomes. At the assessment stage, a nurse identifies the patient’s health problems, including physiological, sociocultural, and economic factors. Thus, a nurse should collect both objective and subjective data from a patient. At the diagnosis stage, a nurse critically analyzes the patient’s data and makes a clinical judgment about the patient’s condition and medical needs. At the planning stage, a nurse should plan a course of treatment based on short-term and long-term goals.
At the implementation stage, the nursing interventions from the plan of care are made. It is important that a nurse assure the continuity of care for a patient during all stages of care, including hospitalization and the preparation for discharge. At the evaluation stage, the patient’s status and the outcomes of services delivered to the patient need to be evaluated. In case some of the goals have not been reached, the care plan should be modified accordingly.
Undergraduate education in liberal arts makes nurses well-rounded and balanced, and it also encourages them to think in a different way. By learning such disciplines as sociology, literature, and philosophy, students begin to appreciate their place in the global society and learn how their feelings and actions can affect patient care. It is also worth mentioning that this education helps nurses develop their critical thinking skills, evaluate a situation, and synthesize a solution based on the information available. Apart from that, education in liberal arts enables future healthcare professionals to communicate more meaningfully with patients.
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Nurses should know mathematics as they routinely use fractions, addition, and ratios to deliver an accurate amount of medication to patients. Physical sciences and science studies help students get a clear understanding of their profession and fill the gaps in their knowledge. For example, to understand biology, one also needs to know physics and chemistry. Therefore, interdisciplinary research areas help students enhance their educational and career goals.
In summary, factors that contribute to the annual incidence and death rates of breast cancer, lung and bronchus cancer, and colorectal cancer have been discussed. The five stages of the nursing process that are utilized to provide high-quality value-based care to patients with cancer have been described. Finally, it has been explained how future nurses may benefit from education in liberal arts and science studies.
American Cancer Society. (2019a). Cancer facts & figures 2019. Web.
American Cancer Society. (2019b). Lung cancer risk factors. Web.
National Cancer Institute. (2018). Cancer statistics. Web.