Human Needs Theory: Description
In 1943, the Theory of Human Needs was created by Abraham H. Maslow (Cao et al., 2013). Known as Maslow’s Hierarchy (of Needs), the framework allows determining the role of specific factors on the personal development of an individual. According to the theorist, there are six primary needs that must be met for an individual to have a happy and fulfilling life. These are physiological needs, safety, the need for belonging, esteem-related needs, and the need for self-actualization (Cao et al., 2013).
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In nursing, the primary tenets of the theory were developed and taken a step further so that the framework could be applied to address health-related concerns. As a result, Henderson’s Human Needs Theory was born (Ahtisham & Jacoline, 2015). Its framework includes the following concepts: breathing, eating, waste elimination, posture, sleeping, dressing, maintaining body temperature, and cleanness (physiological needs); danger avoidance (safety needs); communication and faith (love and belonging), work, recreation, and learning (esteem). The theory suggests that a nurse should keep the focus on all domains of an individual’s life so that the services of the required quality should be provided.
The significance of the theory can hardly be underrated. It helps prioritize patients’ needs so that the required course of actions could be determined. As a result, the search for the most efficient management and treatment strategies can begin (Ahtisham & Jacoline, 2015).
The theory has gained even greater importance in the context of the contemporary globalized environment, due to an increase in diversity levels, the need to cater to the needs of a range of different demographics with unique backgrounds. Therefore, the necessity to introduce the uniform strategy that could help approach the problem from a particular angle and at the same time maintain some form of order in the nursing practice emerged. This is the point at which the Human needs theory factors in into the nursing practice. It outlines the crucial needs that are characteristic of a member of any community and allows a nurse to determine the further course of actions based on a more detailed analysis of the target community (Cao et al., 2013). Therefore, the Human needs Theory is an indispensable framework that must be adopted in the context of the global environment so that the quality of care should remain consistently positive.
Theory Application in Nursing Practice
The Need Theory is applied in modern nursing so that the specific environment in which the process of recovery could start could be created. The theory sheds light on the elements that are crucial to the successful treatment of a certain disease or disorder. Herein lies the significance of using the Needs Theory in the nursing environment (Cao et al., 2013).
Furthermore, the use of the Needs Theory in the context of modern nursing allows managing the issues associated with diversity. Seeing that cross-cultural communication often implies dealing with a range of obstacles, it is crucial to introduce a uniform approach for meeting patients’ needs that can be expanded into a more detailed strategy (Ahtisham & Jacoline, 2015).
Additionally, a proper understanding and classification of patients’ needs allow for efficient collaboration between the members of different areas of healthcare and nursing (e.g., ICU nurses and Nurse Administrators). The results of their cooperation provide premises for developing innovative approaches to treating specific issues. Consequently, the recovery process occurs at a much faster pace than it would otherwise. Therefore, the Theory of Needs is a crucial component of any nursing practice (Cao et al., 2013).
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Ahtisham, Y., & Jacoline, S. (2015). Integrating nursing theory and process into practice; Virginia’s Henderson need theory. International Journal of Caring Sciences, 8(2), 443-450.
Cao, H., Jiang, J., Oh, L. B., Li, H., Liao, X., & Chen, Z. (2013). A Maslow’s hierarchy of needs analysis of social networking services continuance. Journal of Service Management, 24(2), 170-190.