In the current times, creative industries had become imperative contributors in the economies of any state. It is for this reason that regulatory bodies and governments have started to support creative industries so that yield of the industry can be utilized to the fullest. Creative industries not only contribute in the economic front of the state but also help in distinguishing the culture. Creative industry of a state is based upon its culture. Among different creative industries of the world, India and New Zealand are the states that have excelled in achieving their significant image of creative industry in the world.
There are numerous reasons for the excelled positions of creative industries in India and New Zealand. Support for creative industries in New Zealand and India from regulatory bodies and government had undergone a crucial phase. This paper aims to evaluate the attitude of the governments towards the creative industries of India and New Zealand. Moreover, it shall also be evaluated that whether India, a country with a love of all kinds of cultural heritage can learn from current government attitudes to the development and encouragement of music in New Zealand or not. Similarly, it shall also be analyzed that whether Zealand can learn from Indian cultural policies on music.
Understanding Creative Industries
Before understanding in-depth imperativeness of creative industries of India and New Zealand, it is important for us to analyze various forms of creative industries. The term creative industries can synonymously be used with cultural industries. The term creative industry encompasses every expressed form of talent that is utilized for the purpose of capital gain for the economy of state (Global Alliance for Cultural Diversity, 2006). Creative industries include several talented forms of expression such as publishing (books, magazine), production and creative (film and documentary), art and craft (painting and photography), music, designing (fashion, structures) etc (Hartley, 2005).
The term creative industries also express tangible assets of the country. Museums, monuments, libraries are cultural industries which are helping nations to preserve their traditions and customs. Cultural and creative industries are directly related to the tourism of a country. In this way the state is more prone to get a global recognition. It is important to note here that the globalized world of today had greatly enhanced the need of understanding cultures of different countries. The creative industries are now being becoming part of international alliance (Henry, 2007).
The term creative industries include several forms of talents that are being used for the gain of capital. It is important to note that creative industries of different states had contributed considerably in the overall growth domestic product (GDP). The contribution of creative industries in the economy also enhances the need of support of government. Thus, a number of policies had been noted for the creative industries in almost every state of the world (Caves, 2000).
Culture of India
India is diverse in everything, including but not only culture and tradition. Whenever people talk about India, words such as richness, tradition and sense of expression become common. There are many customs, religions and languages found in India. India has 5000 years of history, illustrated in paintings, sculptures, monuments and architecture (Kuiper, 2010). Several art forms, such as dance, music, weaving and carving are significant in Indian culture. These art forms are neither constant nor static; they differ from region to region, as do the languages.
Consequently, there are marked cultural differences throughout the country; every state has its own culture, language, custom, art and even system of religious beliefs. That’s the reason that India is unique in culture and tradition (Gokulsing & Dissanayake, 2009). Museums, the performing arts, the libraries, arts and culture are referred as the creative and cultural industries in India. The Ministry of Culture and Indian government department is responsible for maintaining the creative industries in India.
Creative Industries of India
The creative industries in India have been the source of encouragement and influence for the creative industries of other states. Such a claim helps us in understanding the significance and the role creative industries are playing for the economy of India. Many countries have developed their creative industries as an influence or followed vocational plans being offered by Indian creative industries. The front of the creative industries in India is very suitable for growth and it is estimated that India could be the next leading state of the world in terms of creative industries. It can be said on the basis of focus to handful dimensions of creative industries of India such as filmmaking and music (Dwyer & Patel, 2002).
There is an extensive amount of literature that is available on the creative industries of India. For instance, film and production of documentaries is a very old phenomenon in India and there is a vast development that had taken place in India. And thus the contribution of creative industries such as film is very high in the economy of India. Following the list of creative industries in India, music (Sangeet), museums (rashtra chaap), libraries, print, deigning and fashion are some of the industries that had made the overall value of India much higher in the global world. India is well-known for its art forms especially performing dance (Singh, 2000). Their dancing is well-known all around the world. Ambassadors are especially trained to help people understand about the Indian form of dancing.
Another important reason of such a higher value and fame of India is that it is being received by countries abroad. The distinctive image of creative industries of India is due to high reception and expertise. The credit of expertise of the creative industries of India should be given to the governmental policies that had been proposed in the past years. The regulations had been strictly followed by such creative industries that had led in the situation where countries such as Canada, Japan, Australian Germany and South Africa are trying to make a pipelined way to invest in the creative industries of India (Luff, 2008).
According to the annual economic estimate in 2008, it was observed that creative industries had contributed £8 billion in the overall growth domestic product (GDP) in India. Despite the fact that creative and cultural industries of India had widely emerged by the pace had been noted to be very slow (Giridhar, 2010). There is a higher potential for the creative industries of India to increase and expand to the highest of expertise but there is a lack of developmental policies. The policies that had been proposed and still being practiced in the creative industries of India are indicating the cultural values more. The focus of the proposed policies is rather on culture and tradition. Even though the cultural policies of government for creative industries are effectively working from past many years but there is a need of proposal for development policies. In the next section, brief overview had been given regarding the governmental policies for creative industries.
Governmental Policies for Creative Industries in India
History is respected everywhere in India both by the people and by the government. According to the official website of the Ministry of Culture, one of the country’s primary objectives is on keeping its traditions alive. The Ministry’s main mission is “ to preserve, promote and disseminate all forms of art and culture”(Ministry of Culture, 2009). To achieve this objective, Ministry of culture is engaged in performing different activities to promote the culture, starting from the most elementary level and rising to cultural exchange programmes internationally. There are special programmes and workshops which help to protect and preserve India’s ancient heritage and to promote a range of contemporary creative arts.
The Ministry’s task is to ensure that “the creative and aesthetic sensibilities of the multicultural people of India remain active and dynamic.” In this process, the Ministry of Culture concentrates on promoting and developing the nation’s heritage, including its culture. The divisions it uses comprise what are known as The Tangible Heritage, The Intangible Heritage and The Knowledge Heritage. Apart from those divisions, the Ministry is also responsible for the preservation of Gandhian heritage as well as for the commemoration of important historical events and centenaries of great personalities, such as Dr B.R. Ambedkar. Monuments, national museums and regional museums come under The Tangible Heritage. Dance, music, drama and performing arts are referred as The Intangible Heritage. The national archives, cultural studies and libraries are considered to belong to The Knowledge Heritage (Ministry of Culture, 2009)
Tangible Cultural Heritage
Monuments, national museums and regional museums come under Tangible Heritage. The Ministry takes responsibility for protecting monuments of national importance. Most of these monuments come under the control of the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI). Until now, the ASI has declared 3667 monuments to be of national importance in the country which includes 21 sites that are inscribed in the World Heritage List by UNESCO(Ministry of Culture, 2009). There are numerous monuments and forts in India and most of these structures are maintained by the Ministry of Culture. The best example is the Taj Mahal, which is considered to be one of the Seven Wonders of the World.
Similarly the Ministry is also involved in the care of museums, and it is engaged in the control of the movement of museum collections within the country. The finest museums are controlled and monitored by the Ministry. These museums are spread across the country. In addition, the Ministry is also engaged in promoting regional museums which it funds through the scheme called Grant-in-Aids (Ministry of Culture, 2009).
Intangible Cultural Heritage
Dance, music, drama and performing arts are referred as The Intangible Heritage. The Ministry of Culture, a ministry of the Government of India has set up Sangeet Natak Akademi, or the National Academy of Music, Dance and Drama. Sangeet Natak Akademi is an autonomous organization which is funded by the Ministry of Culture; it was established in 1953. The main function of this Akademi is the promotion of artists to further the performing arts in India, and seeks to achieve this by arranging performances by renowned veterans as well as promising artists of the younger generation.
The decision making for the Sangeet Natal Akademi is done by the executive board. Such decisions are made for managing the activities of Akademi. The appointment of the Chairman of the Akademi is carried out by Indian President for a period of five years. Sangeet Natak Akademi had been coordinating with international cultures for voluntary assignments. It also works with individual artists in organizing various events such as seminars, festivals, workshops, symposia and so on. Apart from this, the Akademi also runs institutions which are involved in teaching classical music and classical dance. The Kathak Kendra in New Delhi and the Jawaharlal Nehru Manipur Dance Academy in Imphal are typical examples of such institutions(Ministry of Culture, 2009).
The Akademi also grants scholarships through documentation and training programmes for upcoming and promising artists. Akademi is also responsible for giving tribute to the legendary figures. The Akademi also participates actively in coordinating and collaborating with artistic groups in various states and union territories, and with local state academies and other art bodies and cultural institutions throughout the country, Sangeet Natak Akademi takes the initiative in training young musicians and in propagating music, dance, theatre and allied arts(Ministry of Culture, 2009).
The Akademi is also specialized in providing funds for research, documentation, publishing and other forms of performing arts. The Akademi also keeps a check and balance for seminars and events that are especially designed for cultural renounce. (Sangeet Natak Akademi, n.d).
“Major objective of Sangeet Natak Akademi is to co-ordinate the activities of regional or state academies of music, dance and drama, to revive and preserve folk music, folk dance and folk drama in different regions of the country and to encourage the development of community music, martial music and other types of music. It also works at fostering cultural contacts between the different regions of the country and also with other countries in the fields of music, dance and drama”(Sangeet Natak Akademi, n.d).
Music Industry of India
Indian music industry is the world’s second music industry that is able to promote the concept of copywriting. Indian music is the greatest form of self expression in India thus it is the most popular creative industry of India. The music industry of India is on the peak of its evolution and development. Some of the giants in the music industry are Universal Music, Song Entertainment Company etc. Music industry of India had emerged to a level where it had crossed the boundaries. Music industry of India is on such a higher peak because singing and music is in the culture of India. Therefore, Indian music industry had been greatly encouraged by the government (Massey & Massey, 1996).
Governmental Attitude towards Music Industry
The national academy of academy if dance, music and drama felt that there was a need to establish zone-based system in order to promote and preserve regional traditions based on these arts. As a result, seven zonal cultural centres were established. The purpose of the establishment of these zonal cultural centres was to ensure that regional values were preserved across the country. Different Zonal centres had been setup such as south zone cultural centre, north zone cultural centre etc (Sangeet Natak Akademi, 2009).
In addition to the establishment of these cultural centres, the Akademi also went the distance by establishing North East Centre in 2008 in the region of Shillong. The purpose of the North east centre was the same as that of the other regional cultural centres; to preserve and promote folk cultural values that are cultural gems for the region of North Eastern India (Sangeet Natak Akademi, 2009).
The Sangeet Natak Akademi strives to educate the masses about the value of the performing arts. The Sangeet Natak Akademi functions mainly by spreading out the pressure that similar institutions fall in their attempts to educate the masses about the value of regional cultural values. Most importantly, the Sangeet Natak Akademi gives such institutions the much needed financial support without which it will be highly complicated for such institutions to continue their work. The financial grants also help such institutions to carry out research and hold conferences for the revival of the value with which cultural values were perceived in the past. One of the most significant responsibilities of the Sangeet Natak Akademi is the recording of performances for storage in an audio-visual archive that the Sangeet Natak Akademi is developing.
The archives also include compositions and performances by some of the greatest musical experts in the region. The Akademi frequently makes use of these to publish invaluable researches on the performing arts.
The Akademi is well known for a gallery that shows off around 200 regional musical artefacts. Most of these artefacts are music instruments that are particular to the region (Sangeet Natak Akademi, 2009). The Akademi also has a vast collection of publications on the performing arts. These publications are stored in a library belonging to the Akademi and the books are in a variety of languages; which makes the library nothing less than a cultural treasure trove. However, perhaps one of the most important responsibilities of the Sangeet Natak Akademi is the role of the Sangeet Natak Akademi as a cultural advisor to the element.
Film Industry of India
The film industry is one of the most multi-faceted industries in the country. The Indian film industry has become significantly diverse over the past decade. Film industry of India is the industry among all other creative industries that is generating great number of revenue. The continuity of the film industry of India is developing which had simultaneously worked as the contributor in being globalized. The film industry of India is quite competitive in the global world. It is due the cultural and traditional policies that had helped the standard of Indian movies (Dwyer & Patel, 2002).
The hierarchy of Indian film industry had worked with the slow pace. It is widely evident that Indian movies had managed to follow the traditional mind sets of the people which had worked as a secret to their success. But relatively, it should be noted that the development in the cinema was very slow. It took almost forty years to Indian cinema to acquire all the technological techniques to make their movies compete international standards. Indian government had continuously proposed policies that had helped the industry to become the chief creative industry among other creative industries in India (Giridhar, 2010).
The Indian film industry had emerged the name of Indian traditions all around the world. This is why many filmmakers of different countries had started to adjoin the cultural heritage of India in their movies. The film industry of India includes greater filmmakers who arrange workshops of filmmaking for media students abroad. The most distinctive feature of Indian feature is that the industry reflects the values from every sect and belief in India. The cinema of India is fruitful in producing films different languages. Some of the most vibrant cinemas representing different beliefs and languages are Bengali, Telugu, Tamil, Punjabi, Guajarati media etc. This shows that the creative industry of filmmaking in India continues to reflect their cultural that makes the identity of Indian creative industries distinctive (Giridhar, 2010).
Many filmmakers had greatly debated on the fact that the governmental policies were viable for the purpose of safeguard of traditions and customs. But the policies that had been introduced for filmmaking slowed down the process of development in the creative filmmaking industry of India. The films that are being produced in the current times are able to meet the standard of international cinema because individuals are funding their projects themselves with no avid help from the government. The resources are being obtained from international film setups. For instance, government in United States is providing workshops that can be utilized by the filmmakers (Bilton, 2007). In this way they have to pay little fees for the technological processes. Indian government had failed to provide setups for filmmakers. Consequently, filmmakers have to use their own sources to help themselves in producing international levelled films.
Governmental Attitudes towards Filmmaking in India
The National Film Development Corporation is responsible for the stimulation of the movie industry. The basic responsibilities of the National Film Development Corporation include the coordination of available resources to encourage the development of films and to encourage new talent to come and benefit the film industry. The National Film Development Corporation seeks to channel the benefits of this diversity towards positive developments for the film industry and the country (Central Board of Film Certification, 2010).
Government attitude towards the film industry of India had been noted to be more inclined towards safeguard of traditions and customs of their culture. Central Board of Film Certification (CBFC) is the major board committee that is allowed to provide certifications to movies. This board is especially setup to qualify the movies being produced in India. The central headquarters of the board is situation in Mumbai. The major goal of the board committee is to exhibit the films in abroad along with providing the films with certification of qualification as per the standards of Indian cinema. The central board of certification makes it mandatory for the films to qualify the standard as suggested by the Cinematograph Act 1952 with the Union Territory Administration (Central Board of Film Certification, 2010).
There are certain standards which are marked as per the quality of the movies. According to the Central Film Board, grade U is given to films which are open to the public exhibition. A grade is give to movies which are only for adults and UA grade is given to those movies which are made unrestricted to the public but guidance are required for the exhibiting the movies for children. According to the film board, S board is given to those films which are especially directed for specific audiences such as doctors etc (National Film Archive of India, 2010).
Film Division is another commission that is responsible for producing documentaries on real life issues. Magazines are also being published by the commission. Programs for governmental purposes are advertised through these magazines. The Film Division is proficient in exhibiting documentaries and film that in return helps the directors to gather publicity for the screening of their movies. It had been further noted that Film Division’s goal is to exhibit the movies worldwide (National Film Archive of India, 2010).
The ultimate goal of the Films Division is to make sure that cultural heritage of India is being transported into the minds of viewers with the help of programs which are especially designed to educate people about the culture of India. The activities are especially organized so that the viewers can come forward to engage in the motive of filmmakers to broadcast the traditional aspects of history (National Film Archive of India, 2010) National programmes are the basic focus of Films Division so that more and more understanding could be built up for the purpose of awakening Indians as well as promoting the culture to the audiences abroad. Films division had successfully managed to fulfil their mandate over the past 50 years.
The current activities of Films Division include integrations of film festivals all around the world that helps in interaction of many cultures. It could be regarded as a very significant step in the current world order. The Division is also responsible for the production of news, magazines, documentaries etc. The division is fairly providing production services to more than 12,600 cinemas in India. The division had worked as a seller of equipments as well documentaries as it’s able to collect a great deal of publicity of the directors (National Film Archive of India, 2010).
Another very important commission for Indian film industry is National Film Developmental Corporation Limited (NFDC). The agency’s function is to provide the filmmakers with funding so that there could be a great deal of films and encouragement to the filmmakers. Unfortunately, this agency is the only agency that is providing funds to the filmmakers. There is an avid need of agencies such as NFDC so that it could be easy for the filmmakers to come up with their ideas and add in the creative industries. The main interest of NFDC is to encourage different languages so that more and more visibility is given to the cultural heritage of India (National Film Development Corporation Ltd., 2010).
Culture of New Zealand
New Zealand is an island country. It is located in the south-west of the Pacific Ocean. Maori are recognized as the original indigenous people of New Zealand. Maori people by large are actively participating in making efforts for giving life to their old traditions and customs, and at the same time promoting their cultural values. Painting, craft, carving and weaving show their creativity.
According to the New Zealand Tourism Guide (NZTG, 2008.), traditional carvers are helping to educate others and establish their existence through the creation of interesting and valuable works that gives due consideration to the past; every piece of wood they carve tells a story. The way they structure the head and the posture of the body serves as reminders of past events in Maori history. Tattooing is also recognized as an art form and practiced throughout the country. Interesting art galleries have been setup in most of the cities of New Zealand because people in New Zealand have great interest in arts and crafts (NZTG, 2008).
Publishing, design, music, performing arts, visual arts, craft, photography, screen production, radio, television, and cultural heritage are referred as the creative industries in New Zealand (Ministry for Culture & Heritage, 2009a).The Ministry of Culture and Heritage (MCH) is the prime government organization responsible for maintaining and developing the creative arts in New Zealand (New Zealand Tourism Guid, 2008).
Creative Industries of New Zealand
The creative industries of New Zealand are emerging and one of the focuses of the world today. The museums, libraries and monuments of New Zealand are most common among tourist. The broadcasting creative industries are most popular among other creative industries. Music and film industry in New Zealand is increasingly contributing in the country’s success (McKenzie, 1985).
Governmental Policies for Creative Industries in New Zealand
New Zealand is diverse in culture, Ministry of Culture and Heritage (MCH) is a government body responsible for protecting and developing the culture and creativity in New Zealand. The Ministry has the task of appointing ministers in various organizations, such as arts organizations, heritage organizations, broadcasting organizations and sports organizations. The Ministry is accountable for the provision of policy advice on arts, culture, heritage and broadcasting issues(Ministry for Culture & Heritage, 2007). In short, the Ministry is responsible for monitoring all that goes on under the eyes of government-funded agencies in the cultural sector.
The New Zealand Historic Places Trust (NZHTP) is New Zealand’s guardian of the New Zealand’s national heritage. The main purpose of this Trust is “to identify, protect, preserve and conserve the historical and cultural heritage, and also to create awareness of its importance to national identity”(Ministry for Culture & Heritage, 2009b). The New Zealand Historic Places Trust was established in 1954. The Ministry of Culture and Heritage (MCH) is in charge of appointing the Trust’s chairperson, NZHTP is governed by the Board of Trustees and assisted by the Maori Heritage Council(Ministry for Culture & Heritage, 2009).
In comparison, New Zealand’s Ministry of Culture and Heritage (MCH), a government body, comprises various organizations which are working towards promoting arts in New Zealand. For example, The New Zealand Music Commission (NZMC), a government-funded organization, is engaged in promoting New Zealand’s contemporary popular music business. The Commission receives financial support from the government to undertake projects, both in New Zealand and outside New Zealand. The Commission manages the New Zealand music international market development programmed, ‘Outward Sound’ and coordinates the New Zealand Music Month (Ministry for Culture & Heritage, 2009a).
The Commission, supported by The Ministry for Culture and Heritage, is governed by a board of trustees. “The Board members have been appointed specifically for their knowledge and skills across all facets of the NZ music business and they meet eleven times a year” (New Zealand Music Commission, 2009). The Commission receives regular funding through the Ministry for Culture for promoting heritage and also to promote music education programmes in schools as directed by the Ministry of Education. NZMC is an independent charitable trust, based in Auckland(New Zealand Music Commission, 2009a).
The Commission is also known as The New Zealand Music Industry Commission Te Reo Reka o Aotearoa (New Zealand Music Commission, 2009a). The objective of the NZMC is to create a successful music industry, not just economically but also culturally in New Zealand and outside New Zealand. The New Zealand Music Commission has a range of school programmes that have been funded by the Ministry of Education since 2001 and was initially developed to support what was then the new Arts Curriculum. The role is spelt out clearly:“NZMC is involved in many activities and provides resources which include band and student mentoring programmes, working closely with Smoke-free Pacifica Beats and Rock Quest competitions, using teacher workbooks, audio CDs and CD ROMS and DVDs” (New Zealand Music Commission, 2009).
The New Zealand Music Commission also organizes the New Zealand Music Month (NZMM), an annual event. It does this by collaborating with other organizations such as NZ On Air, The Recording Industry Association of New Zealand Inc (RIANZ), the Australasian Performing Right Association (APRA), Independent Music NZ, and the Radio Broadcasters Association. NZMM is held in May every year. The New Zealand Music Month (NZMM) first started in 2001 with an aim of to promote awareness of New Zealand music and ensuring that New Zealand songs are more broadcasted on commercial radio. The New Zealand Music Month has been successful, both commercially and culturally, helping to send soaring sales of established artists and to provide exposure for new NZ musicians each year(New Zealand Music Commission, 2009b)
Music Industry of New Zealand
If one was to go over the last two decades of the New Zealand music industry, it is not difficult to observe a pattern through which it can be surmised that the willingness and readiness with which the government has chosen to support the New Zealand music industry is a key reason because of which the product from the industry is now being given reverence in the international music market (Shuker 2008). It is perhaps because of the same reason that musicians from England who still have a considerable distance to go in the domestic scene are beginning to establish an international audience.
However, no discussion on the New Zealand music industry can be expected to be adequately comprehensive without highlighting the manner in which the cultural relevance of New Zealand interacts with the modern day music industry that is currently functioning in New Zealand.
One of the most important reasons because of which it took the New Zealand music industry such a lot of time to acquire the position that it holds today is that the music production companies are faced with a situation where the available talent is good for the domestic market but the odds are not as favourable for the international market (Shuker 2008).
At the same time, the cost of business expansion is increasing rapidly in the international music industry, which has encouraged music producers in New Zealand to concentrate on the domestic market and to make the most of the domestic audience. The scenario becomes more unforgiving for new entrants in the industry since older industry members have acquired the international footing that is required to become a key part of the international music industry. This has left new entrants with very little incentive to channel investments towards expansion into the international music industry.
Governmental Attitude towards Music Industry
The well-known controversy that loomed over the quota for New Zealand music during the late 1980s is a reflection of the manner in which the supply of talent exceeded the resources of the music industry. The idea of the quota may be something new to the music industry but the idea came from a report developed by a government commission on the issue. It was not until the New Zealand on Air was established that the New Zealand music industry was able to make its mark through noticeable developments.
The New Zealand on Air served as the stepping stone for music that was not able to reach far flung air waves under the rule of commercial broadcasting services that charged heavy prices (Spicer, Powell, & Emanuel 1996). Since the New Zealand on Air worked directly under the ministry of broadcasting, the government was able to ensure that the New Zealand music industry grew steadily over time. The promotion and development of the New Zealand music industry not only served to widen the audience for present performers and music producers but also brought down the industry’s entry barriers.
The increased focus on music continued into the 2000s and the budget for 2000 constituted a significant amount of finance for the development and promotion of the performing arts; and music in particular (Shuker 2008). The government took a supportive role to promote New Zealand music by supporting projects that assisted entrepreneurs in the industry and encouraged new talent to take an initiative.
Perhaps the only issue with the development is that it has brought the New Zealand music farther from its roots and closer to a position where it now tends to follow international music trends. As a result, there remains the hazard that the industry and its music might lose the individuality that it is famous for.
Film Industry of New Zealand
Film industry in New Zealand is relatively small in comparison with other industries. The comparison between the creative film industries of India and New Zealand states that Indian film industry overshadows the New Zealand as most of the films in New Zealand are co-produced. With the passage of time, the film industry of New Zealand had relatively developed with major movies such as The Adventures of the Tintin, King Kong etc. The development of film industry of New Zealand had given an encouragement to the creative industries of New Zealand (Kiwiphile, 2008).
Governmental Attitude towards Filmmaking
By focusing the consequences of film industry of India, I was greatly observed that there was an avid need of support and promotion of the industry. At first, most of the film makers pointed out the fact that government is not supporting the industry as it should have done. Such claims led to heated debate between government officials and film makers. As a result of the heated debate between the film makers and government officials, New Zealand film commission was originated. Such a commission was obviously backed up by the government’s support (New Zealand Film Commission, 2010).
The New Zealand Film Commission was backed up by the National Party under the regulations imposed by the parliament. The government’s support was provided to the film industry with reference to the Article 17 stating New Zealand Film Commission Act in the year 1978. The main goals that were associated with the Film Commission were to encourage the filmmakers to come forward and produce films. The promotion and distribution of directed films was the basic mandate of the Film Commission. The regulations and goals are still being practiced in New Zealand which consequently helped the film industry to undergo the process of evolution (New Zealand Film Commission, 2010).
The additive goals of the film commission were then further observed in the following years of commission’s originations. The Film Commission’s goal is to encourage the filmmakers to promote the solidarity with the New Zealand film industry. Moreover, another significant pointer is to make sure that the archives of the New Zealand film industry are being updated and maintained (New Zealand Film Commission, 2010).
The origin and working process of Article 17 New Zealand Film Commission Act of 1978 greatly helped the film industry of New Zealand in becoming a creative addition in the creative industries. The great deal of revenue was also generated by the acceptance new article 17 that influenced the filmmakers. As a result, enormous developments took place in the film industry of New Zealand. Some filmmakers highlighted the need of culture safeguard. As there were many new filmmakers coming in the creative field of filmmaking, newer trends were being introduced which made the government alarmed. Thus the promotion of culture was stressed in the films. Consequently Article 18 namely Content of Film s under the New Zealand Film Commission Act of 1978 took place. The new article is still in practice with specific goals to follow (Bilton, 2007).
The content of the films were thus being gauged strictly more than ever. Some of the pointers were made obviously important for the qualification of movie for release. For this propose, the title of the film was made very important to note, the locations of the movie shooting, the funding resources etc. The nationalities of cast and crew of the movie was also made an important aspect of the filmmaking. All these pointers were regarded as unsatisfactory by the filmmakers because most of the filmmakers had to fund their films by the international resource. Thus in this way, most of the movies made by New Zealand filmmakers were given international title acclaim by the New Zealand government (Bilton, 2007).
Even though the debates had been ongoing between the government official policies and filmmakers, it had been noted that proposed policies of government had relatively helped the industry to come forward and become developed. But in the fast pace of development, the cultural heritage of New Zealand in most of its creative industries had been faded.
Interface of Policies
It had been observed as per investigation that the governmental attitudes towards the creative industries of different states and more specifically in case of India and New Zealand had been very helpful. It should be noted that the governmental policies of India and New Zealand have been observed to be inclined towards one interest (Giridhar, 2010). For instance, as mentioned above the governmental policies as proposed for Indian creative industries were more inclined towards the safeguard of the traditions and customs of the country. There is an avid need of policies which could serve as a guideline towards fast paced development of the creative industries in India.
In this case, the governmental policies of New Zealand for creative industries had been quite effective. Almost all the creative industries in New Zealand had been emerging but with the fast paced governmental initiatives it became quite easy for the industries to develop in very less time period. But the drawback that had been claimed by many researchers is that the creative industries in New Zealand are towards the point where they actually fail to promote their culture (New Zealand Film Commission, 2010). It is for this reason, it is suggested that the governmental policies in case of creative industries of New Zealand are made inclined towards cultural safeguard.
The above scenarios as studies and backed up with the literature that had been published so far claims that it is would be better would Indian government to learn from the developmental policies of New Zealand. Such claim had been mentioned because New Zealand policies for creative industries have helped them emerge in a very short span of time. Similarly, if focused, it comes to our understanding that creative industries of New Zealand had greatly emerged and have started to acquire its place in the international giants of creative industries.
The problem that arises in the case of creative industries is that they are losing the blend of their cultural heritage in creative industries. In that case the need occurs to strengthen their grounds to contribute to their cultural heritage so that the tradition helped the creative industries of New Zealand to grab its own distinctive identity in the international market. In the globalized world where different cultures are crossing the preferences and lifestyle, it becomes equally important to safeguard its own culture. On interface of the cultural policies of India and New Zealand, it becomes apparent that the needs of both creative industry trade marks can acquire better positions.
Through the above analysis of the creative industries of India and New Zealand and governmental attitudes towards the creative industries, it comes to our understanding that creative industries of different countries serves as a very important component. Creative industries are not of lesser importance than any other industries of a country. Among various creative industries of the world, New Zealand and India are two states that have supported their creative industries to a higher extent.
But it had been observed that governmental policies that had been introduced for creative industries have addressed one aspect of regulations i.e. either cultural safeguard or development interest. Governmental policies for creative industries in India had been addressing issues of cultural heritage safeguard. Thus it is suggested that India take reference from the governmental policies for creative industries of New Zealand. Similarly, New Zealand had undergone fast paced growth and development in the past few years due to the developmental policies by proposed by the government but there is a need of address to cultural policies. Therefore it is suggested that both the countries, India and New Zealand, can consider governmental policies for development and cultural safeguard.
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