Sugar is essential for energy balance and can be found practically in all plants and animal products. However, in modern supermarkets, people buy dozens of varieties of goods with added sugar and consume large quantities of them, which causes various diseases associated with metabolic disorders, cardiovascular problems, and caries. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between health problems and high levels of sugar intake.
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Subject and Research Questions
The subject of this study is the nutritional habits of people and their impact on health, precisely, the harm of high sugar intake. It is also necessary to highlight several research questions to reveal this topic fully:
- What level of sugar intake can be considered high and normal?
- What diseases can cause high sugar intake?
- Is there a correlation between the amount of sugar consumed and the increased risk of health problems?
Research Claim and the Audience
The central claim of the study is the statement that high sugar intake increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, caries, and obesity. At the same time, these risks increase in relation to higher sugar consumption. The primary audience that might be interested in this study is doctors, nurses, nutritionists, and organizations promoting a healthy lifestyle. This research also can be interesting for the general public or group of people that care about their health in particular.
This study can be carried out by using a review of literature, which has high variability but is not systematized. It is necessary to divide the survey into several consecutive parts, which contributes to a thorough analysis and obtaining accurate data. At the first stage, literature will be revised on this topic, and the second step will be its analysis and division into three categories. These categories should include sources that determine the average level of sugar consumption and its effect, the impact of high consumption on health, and the interdependence of sugar intake, and the risks of developing the diseases. Next, the analysis and synthesis of the literature will be carried out, and the main results, conclusions, and shortcomings of the study will be determined.
A previous review of the literature showed that the number of sources discussing high sugar intake is limited. However, some studies and reports examine the diverse aspects of this issue. Table 1 shows examples of such sources that are expected to be used in the study. Their main intersection is the fact that they all confirm the negative impact of high sugar intake on the body, although they consider different age categories and various body systems.
Table 1. Synthesis Matrix.
|Source||Theme #1||Theme # 2||Theme #3|
|World Health Organization (2015).||The level of free sugars should not exceed 10% of energy intake, and ideally, must be no more than 5%.||Weight gain and caries development are key in the study, as obesity is a risk factor for the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease.||Free sugars, in general, are enough to promote a positive energy balance, which is necessary for the health of the human body.|
|Peres et al. (2016)||High sugar consumption increases the risk of tooth caries in the period from 4 to 18 years.||Determination of high, medium, and low sugar intake.||Frequent sugar intake in childhood is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes.|
|Vos et al. (2017)||A diet with high sugar consumption and lack of nutrients causes cardiovascular disease, obesity, and cancer associated with obesity.||The use of added sugar is safe within normal limits and brings benefits for health.||Consuming added sugar requires increased energy use.|
Peres, M., Sheiham, A., Liu, P., Demarco, F., Silva, A., Assunção, M., … Peres, K. (2016). Sugar consumption and changes in dental caries from childhood to adolescence. Journal of Dental Research, 95(4), 388–394.
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Vos, M. B., Kaar, J. L., Welsh, J. A., Horn, L. V. V., Feig, D. I., Anderson, C. A., … Johnson, R. K. (2017). Added sugars and cardiovascular disease risk in children: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 135(19), 1017–1034.
World Health Organization. (2015). Guideline: Sugars intake for adults and children. Web.