In the middle of the 20th century, the foreign policy of almost all countries was determined by such a political phenomenon as the Cold War. It can be briefly described as a rivalry for supremacy in the new post-war world. The world split into two hostile camps led by the United States and the Soviet Union. There were various reasons for their confrontation, but the main was the basic ideological differences between the two political systems.
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Relations between the USSR and the West remained tense until the outbreak of World War II. The joint struggle with fascist Germany rallied the allies and gave hope for the normalization of relations. However, after the victory, the authority of the Soviet Union increased tremendously (Duric 54). Therefore, the United States started the confrontation to prevent the Soviet Union from seizing the world power.
Another reason was the insoluble ideological contradictions between the two different models of society, socialism, and capitalism. The United States wanted to combat the socialist aggression since it was dangerous for the entire Western world. The USSR illegally took control of a significant part of Eastern and Central Europe, depriving the inhabitants of many countries of their freedoms. For example, the emergence of the Iron Curtain was the result of the Soviet Union’s violent behavior (Duric 55). In all countries of the world, except Great Britain and the United States, powerful communist parties were ready to turn into an instrument of tyranny.
The Cold War was the result of the mutual aggressive aspirations of Western and Communist leaders. Both hostile camps tried to strengthen their influence in the world. There were several reasons for the Cold War, including an ideological and political confrontation between capitalism and socialism. However, the main reason for the United States to start the Cold War against the Soviet Union was to stop its aggressive territorial and ideological expansion.
Duric, Mira. The Strategic Defense Initiative: US Policy and the Soviet Union. Taylor & Francis, 2017.