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The Rise and Fall of Communism After World War II


Germany invaded Poland on September 1, 1939, triggering World War II in Europe. The war involving Germany and the Soviet Union was one of the darkest and most massive conflicts in human history. Since they lost close relatives, possessions, and meaningful life, it had a significant impact on Jewish folks’ life. Owing to the enormous massacre that occurred during the period, there was a political upheaval at the period. Germany grew from a small country with a small population to a massive European powerhouse that targeted single ethnicity. From 1941 through 1968, Heda Margolius Kovály ‘s story “Under a Cruel Star” is set in Prague, Czech Republic. Heda’s extraordinary life tale includes Nazi concentration camps, WWII catastrophe, the communist revolution, and Stalinist brutality in Czechoslovakia after the battle. The novel “Under a Cruel Star” begins in October 1941, with the wholesale repatriation of Jews from Prague to Poland’s Lodz Ghetto. Heda’s family had been ordered to attend the Exposition Hall in Prague, and she describes the situation in her story as analogous to a barbaric shitshow. (Kovály 2019). Describing it as where youngsters howl, terror-stricken men and women shed their senses, and the critically ill, who had been transported there on braces, perish.

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The Emergence of Communism After World War II

Heda Kovály never claimed to be a Marxist or a Communist. She was another oblivious Czech democrat and republican, enamored of the Masaryk and Benes traditions. She married Rudolf Margolius, an enthusiastic devotee to Czech Communism who had survived the Holocaust at Auschwitz, at a period when several youthful Czech democrats, survivors of the Nazis and frustrated with the bureaucracy and pessimism at home, gravitated warmly to the Soviet Union. Rudolf had served in the Czech republic’s prewar military as a soldier. Heda’s assessments of communism’s impact on Czechoslovakia are noteworthy since they are the observations of a lady who was suspicious of communism’s effectiveness while simultaneously appearing enthusiastic. During the Party’s ascendancy, Heda was neither pro-communist nor was she completely anti-communist. According to Heda, the inhabitants of Czechoslovakia embraced communism since it allowed them to make restitution for their inaction throughout the German invasion (Kovály 2019). By recounting her experiences in the Lodz Ghetto and the agony she endured at Auschwitz, Heda demonstrates her dread at the hands of a totalitarian dictatorship and her desire for liberation.

Heda’s enthusiasm for communism was piqued, after she studied communist brochures and overheard her spouse discussing politics. She further mentioned that Rudolph had some people around every time to talk about the celebration (Kovály 2019). Rudolph’s acquaintance indicated he still embraced the notion of democracy during one of these chats, she claimed. Heda showed compassion for those who believe in democracy but afterwards recognized that she felt bad for doing so. After listening to communist sympathizers, she recognized that the shame she was experiencing stemmed from her knowledge that democracy facilitated the advent of dictatorship. The fundamental reason Heda and Rudolf supported Communism was that it was founded on the notion that there is only one class, the middle class, and that income should be distributed equally.

The Fall of Communism

Rudolf was a student of economics who worked for an institution devoted to reviving the nation’s manufacturing sector. After the Communists assume authority in 1948, he joins the Department of Foreign Trade and progresses through the ranks to become Deputy Minister of Foreign Trade under President Klement Gottwald. He successfully brokered numerous key financial deals with the British Government while in that post. Rudolf Margolius rose through the ranks of the Czech Ministry of Foreign Trade, working himself to endurance to implement the several diverse orders of his supervisors to avoid admitting to himself how myriad flaws there were in Czech socialism.

Heda Kovály depicts the atrocities of life amid the Nazis’ brutality and the Communists’ harsh deception in a relentless and unforgiving manner. Communists were similar to Nazis in certain aspects, but they were extremely philosophically arrogant. Few publications from our time’s Eastern European anguish illustrate so clearly how the ugliest characters under the Nazis, the old collaborators and economic scroungers, became the most vociferous and nationalistic Communists after 1948. The “fundamental foundation” of the party was formed by these morally ambiguous characters. Kovály (2019) states that, “the ability to investigate on the personal affairs of others was, I believe, what made many individuals work with the local Party organizations”. At the same moment, elderly liberals like Rudolf Margolius’ misdirected exuberance and frenzied working too hard suddenly seem sad.

People initially supported communism, but it was not friendly to its population. Public executions were judicial prosecutions that took place in open settings to sway public perception instead of guaranteeing fairness. The Sanksy trial was the name of this case. Stalin ordered several persecutions in Eastern Europe in the late 1940s and early 1950s. On January 10, 1952, the Czechoslovak undercover police detained Rudolf, even though he was an economist and not active in Party politics. Heda last saw him on the brink of his killing, almost a year afterwards. Rudolf was brought to prosecution in the novel since he was condemned for being espionage, a rebel, and a saboteur. He was subjected to torture and coercion into confessing to a felony he did not undertake. Rudolf Margolius, who fought World War II in Auschwitz, was charged with being a spy in England, which was characteristic of the Slansky trial. There are numerous subtleties in this tale that scream for attention. Ludwik Frejka, a seasoned Communist, informed Heda Kovitly after her husband’s incarceration that he couldn’t do anything. During his prosecution, Thomas, his 16-year-old son, openly stated that he wanted his father to perish.

Heda was regarded with diminished reverence after Rudolf’s imprisonment and persecution. “Until then, the folks on our street had just ignored or avoided me; now a tsunami of hostility began to swell,” (Kovály 2019). Heda claims that, “Women, in particular, would come to a halt and gaze at me with hate, muttering to one another as I walked past (Kovály 2019). After I approached her door, a sympathetic receptionist would spew noisily into the street to make sure I noticed. It’s awful to consider that these folks had known the Rudolf family for years and yet did not bother to criticize the regime’s decision”. The psychological harm it might do is unimaginable, made terrible by the fact that it was caused by misunderstanding. Some people were not ignorant, having at the very least some small semblance of doubt over the party’s accusations.

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This is understandable behavior, even if it is unethical. These people lived under communist-totalitarian control, and any dissident was treated as a traitor. Heda knew how the authoritarian system worked since she was a party to it. It depends on you maintaining to live your life in cluelessness once you’ve been enslaved by it. The party would deceive and influence, whittling away at one’s principles till they were nothing more than a shell of their former selves. The Communist administration also implemented some measures aimed at suppressing civil society, permitting the state to reassert control over its citizens. It’s reasonable that several people, even if they knew Heda’s husband was blameless, would be misinformed and scared to speak up for her.

Confusion was at the basis of all of Heda’s problems throughout her lifetime. While the Nazis and the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia can both be accused of starting the occurrences, they would have never escalated to the extent they did if the people’s naivety had not been exploited. Head patiently demonstrates how so several tragic events in her life could have been prevented if individuals had simply asked questions about what was occurring in their environment. Heda’s purpose, in my opinion, was to convey her information with the expectation that people would disseminate their understanding of the hazards of illiteracy, so rendering the global community a better environment.


Finally, Heda’s story is essentially a philosophical tale, and the inferences she makes are predictable but not explicitly mentioned. Czechoslovakia’s communism was flawed and destined for failure, being unduly devoted to the Russian paradigm and hence unsuited for a better industrialized and modern society. The Communist bureaucracy was fundamentally fraudulent, except Rudolf and a few other idealists, and the Postwar crime spree was a logical progression. Communism paved the way for society’s lowest rungs to rise to authority, allowing phoney and unscrupulous robber barons to grasp intellectual slogans and ride them to prominence. All that was wonderful in the Czech character was distorted by Nazism and subsequently Communism, and even the fresh vitality of the Prague Revolution could not fully rebuild Czech society. Much of Czech cultural heritage, in Kovály ‘s opinion, may be divided into two distinct groups.


Kovály, Heda M. 2019. Under A Cruel Star: A Life in Prague 1941-1968. Plunkett Lake Press.

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