The article “The Role of Job Satisfaction, Work Engagement, Self-Efficacy and Agentic Capacities on Nurses’ Turnover Intention and Patient Satisfaction” by De Simone, Planta, and Cicotto (2018) examines the impact of various elements such as work fulfillment, employees’ commitment, and self-efficacy on healthcare officials’ turnover plans and patients’ contentment with medical services. Its research problem is explicitly described in the first paragraph. The study’s problem statement is significant to the healthcare sector because voluntary turnover among nurses has become an international phenomenon.
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According to De Simone et al. (2018), this behavior affects the quality of healthcare services. These authors have managed to place the stated problem within the context of the existing knowledge. Different studies deployed in this article show various factors that compel nurses to leave their professions. Understanding the underlying causes of the increased turnover rate among nurses will play a significant role in solving this issue (De Simone et al., 2018). This article provides a strong background for creating apt strategies for retaining nurses. The purpose of this research involves investigating the association between self-efficacy, job contentment, commitment to work, and agentic capabilities and turnover rates among nurses.
Review of the Literature
The three authors sufficiently summarize earlier studies on the connection between self-efficacy, work approval, employees’ dedication to their tasks, and agentic competence and nurse turnover levels. De Simone et al. (2018) reveal gaps in the existing knowledge regarding the tendency of nurses to leave their jobs. However, most of the references used in this article are not current. Some were published in the 1970s. Quitting jobs, probably to seize new opportunities, is not an emerging phenomenon in the nursing industry. Therefore, earlier scholars had already conducted studies on nurses’ turnover plans and the underlying causes. As a result, De Simone et al. (2018) needed to link the old literature materials to recent research. This way, they would have unveiled new aspects such as nurses’ agentic capabilities, which have not been explored adequately.
The theoretical framework adopted in this article is appropriate in explaining how work engagement, job satisfaction, self-efficacy, and agentic capabilities influence nurses’ plans to quit their jobs (De Simone et al., 2018). This theoretical concept is not only clearly defined but also well linked to the selected research topic. This article does not solely draw thoughts from nursing models. Instead, it uses theories from other disciplines to examine human behavior. Precisely, the social cognitive theory is deployed in this work. The significance of this theoretical framework is to reveal the manner in which people act and interact in the work environment. According to these researchers, nurses are inclined to exercising control over their motivational and rational processes through agentic capabilities.
The independent variables investigated in this research include job fulfillment, nurses’ commitment, and self-worth. These factors are seen as endogenous to individual health officers. The dependent variables include agentic capacities and turnover plans. This article does not present any operational definitions of the above variables. This situation leaves the audience with an unclear understanding of their concreteness and measurability. The four hypotheses stated in the article include:
- “Job satisfaction has a stronger negative relationship with turnover intention compared to the other analyzed dimensions” (De Simone et al., 2018, p. 132).
- “Job satisfaction, work engagement, self-efficacy, and agentic capacities are positively interrelated and negatively correlated with hospital turnover intention” (De Simone et al., 2018, p. 132).
- “Agentic capacities, self-efficacy, and work engagement exert direct positive effects on job satisfaction and each of these variables exert direct and indirect negative effects on turnover intention” (De Simone et al., 2018, p. 132).
- “Patient satisfaction is positively associated with nurses’ job satisfaction, work engagement, self-efficacy, and agentic capacities and negatively associated with nurses’ turnover intention” (De Simone et al., 2018, p. 133).
This study adopted a qualitative research design. It was conducted in two public healthcare facilities in Southern Italy. Informed consent was obtained from the healthcare directors of the selected organizations and individual participants. After they agreed to take part in this exercise, investigators collected data from 22 inpatient wards of the hospitals under study. Nurses and patients aged 18 years and above participated in filling out questionnaires. Deductive reasoning was used in this study. The hypotheses of the research were developed based on the social cognitive theory. De Simone et al. (2018) used the probability sampling technique. Cronbach’s reliability alphas were used to measure the consistency of measurement tools. Ethical considerations were addressed after the completion of this research. All guidelines were followed in line with the standards of the organizational research commission and the Italian Association of Psychology (AIP).
ANOVA test helped to determine differences that existed between dependent and independent variables. This analysis was performed using the SPSS tool for Windows, version 22 (De Simone et al., 2018). Path Analysis test was also deployed “to verify the direct positive effects of agentic capacities, self-efficacy, and work commitment on job contentment” (De Simone et al., 2018, p. 133). Results were presented using Pearson’s correlation and fit indices of path models. Findings depicted job satisfaction as the primary cause of voluntary turnover among nurses (De Simone et al., 2018). This study revealed that turnover intentions were directly proportional to job gratification.
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Summary/Conclusions, Implications, and Recommendations
A primary strength of this study is that it expands the knowledge of factors that are linked to nurses’ turnover plans. This observation verifies the significance of monitoring self-efficacy, job satisfaction, work engagement, and self-regulation among health officials. Findings present practical implications for the healthcare sector. Nevertheless, this study has limitations that can be overcome with more comprehensive research developments. For instance, the small sample size and the involvement of volunteer nurses and patients prevent the authors from generalizing their results. Moreover, the use of self-reported questionnaires led to the exclusive collection of subjective data. Consequently, factors such as absenteeism and real turnover are not captured in the stated results.
De Simone, S., Planta, A., & Cicotto, G. (2018). The role of job satisfaction, work engagement, self-efficacy and agentic capacities on nurses’ turnover intention and patient satisfaction. Applied Nursing Research, 39, 130-140.