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“Training Pilots for Unexpected Events” by Landman et al.


The analyzed article delves into the peculiarities of pilots training in emergent situations that demand unusual actions. The central reason for pursuing this research is the lack of training for a surprise in the aircrew (Landman et al. 793).

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The authors state that the existing regulations provide specialists with skills that can be used in usual and predictable conditions (Landman et al. 793). However, this method deteriorates the overall quality of pilots education and increases the risk of human errors in emergent situations. For this reason, Landman et al. want to clarify if the alteration of the existing approach presupposing the inclusion of unexpected scenarios can help to improve the situation in the sphere and contribute to better results (793). Another reason for the selection of the given topic is the lack of information regarding the problem (Landman et al. 793).

The fact is that the issue remains topical for the sphere of aviation; however, prior researchers devoted low attention to the investigation of simulators and how they can be altered to improved training results (Landman et al. 793). For this reason, the authors assume that there is a need to conduct research on this issue to improve the comprehension of the problem.


To investigate the suggested aspect, the article utilizes a particular methodology. The authors create two groups needed to analyze the planned intervention. The first group consists of 10 pilots who will practice responses to controllability issues in an unusual manner using new approaches; the second group also including 10 pilots who will be trained traditionally, adhering to a highly predictable and usual manner (Landman et al. 794).

After these courses, all participants of the research are tested using surprise scenarios to compare their responses and conclude about the effectiveness of one or another approach. Landman et al. justify the choice of this very methodology by the need to perform the in-depth investigation of the researched issue and compare the suggested method with old ones (796). At the same time, their basic assumptions regarding the use of this approach are supported by the relevant literature that creates the theoretical background of the research. In general, the selected method seems appropriate for the paper as it helps to answer the central question and collect data, demonstrating peculiarities of certain approaches to pilots training.


The authors are also successful in organizing the paper in a way that contributes to a better understanding of the discussed issue, its topicality, and its significance for the sphere. They create the background for cogitations by adding the introductory section explaining the current situation in pilots training and the need for more efficient approaches to improve specialists preparedness (Landman et al. 795). The given section is followed by a comprehensive description of the utilized methodology that helps to understand how the research is conducted. Only after this part, the results of the investigation are offered. Landman et al. present their findings in detail to ensure that readers understand central ideas and information collected during the research (800).

All data portions are supported by tables to ensure that individuals interested in the issue will be able to find statistical and numerical pieces of evidence. All terms mentioned by the authors in their paper are explained and used in contexts to understand them. In such a way, the structure of the work helps investigators to present their ideas efficiently and ensure that readers will follow their assumptions.

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Statistical Methods

Along with the methodology mentioned above, the researchers also use statistical methods of investigation to compare different variables and demonstrate alterations in the analyzed aspects under the impact of suggested interventions. One of the most commonly used statistical methods is the creation of models represented by graphs and charts. Using these models, Landman et al. emphasize the fact that the pilots average response time and their ability to act in unexpected situations are aspects that might alter under the impact of different factors affecting them (799). For this reason, they utilize statistical methods of analysis to work with numerical data and represent it in the appropriate way.

Speaking about the experimental design suggested by the authors to compare the results of using simulators, it was clearly specified and supported by the statistical data collected in the course of the investigation. In such a way, by using statistical methods, the researchers manage to conduct the in-depth investigation of the problem of pilots training and present the results of their work appropriately.


Utilizing all the methods mentioned above, the authors manage to delve into the issue and analyze it. In the course of the investigation, they come to the conclusion that the approach that presupposes pilots additional training using surprise situations and the unexpected scenario becomes a more efficient tool to improve these specialists ability to act in emergent situations and attain better outcomes. For this reason, regardless of the fact that the U/V way of training demands more time, it should be given preference to ensure that pilots are provided with the most efficient training (Landman et al. 802).

These results are expected as at the beginning of the paper, the authors assume that the given approach will have better results because of its focus on all factors that might emerge during the flight and minimize the negative impact of the human factor (Landman et al. 802). The credibility of these findings is supported by data collected in the course of the investigation, which means that the authors managed to prove their hypothesis and central assumptions.


To preserve the relevance of their investigation, the authors also speak about limits that impacted their research and should be considered while discussing its results. The main limit of this study is the short practice session that prevents pilots from being trained appropriately (Landman et al. 801). In other words, the long-term effects of U/V lack detailed analysis because of the time limits that served as the barrier for the in-depth investigation. At the same time, Landman et al. assume that the credibility of findings remains high because of the use of appropriate methodology and collection of relevant data (801). Analyzing the paper, others cannot be found, which means that the researchers provided complete information regarding the possible obstacles for the analysis of the issue.


Altogether, the importance of the paper and its contribution to the improved understanding of the problem cannot be doubted. The authors use an effective research design that helps to investigate the issue and provide credible results. For this reason, the article can be recommended as a relevant source that may be used by researchers working in the same sphere. Additionally, there are also implications for practice as results of the study can be used as the background for the further research needed to improve the situation in the sphere and attain better results regarding pilots actions in emergent situations and their responses to them.

Work Cited

Landman, Annemaire, et al. “Training Pilots for Unexpected Events: A Simulator Study on the Advantage of Unpredictable and Variable Scenarios.” Human Factors, vol. 60, no. 6, 2018, pp. 793-805.

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