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Transcultural Nursing Theory by Madeleine Leininger

Summary of Article One

In their article, Albougami, Pounds, and Alotaibi (2016) compared four theoretical models of transcultural nursing. The researchers claimed that globalization processes, immigration, and diversity in populations had led to changing the principles of providing patient-oriented care. They also formulated the purpose of the article as the comparison of such theories as Leininger’s approach, Purnell’s theory, Giger and Davidhizar’s theory, and Campinha-Bacote’s theory. Albougami et al. (2016) also provided concepts and definitions appropriate for the discussion and analyzed the evolution of transcultural nursing models.

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It was noted that Leininger’s theory of transcultural nursing based on the sunrise model is important for helping nurses to provide systematic culture-oriented care. According to Leininger’s theory, much attention should be paid to religious, educational, social, philosophical, financial, legal, and other aspects when nurses analyze patients’ needs and try to respond to them. Also, the application of Leininger’s theory is critical to avoid nurses’ biases, ignorance and stereotyping. Albougami et al. (2016) also accentuated the role of culture care preservation, accommodation, and repatterning in assisting patients according to the principles of Leininger’s theory.

The researchers also presented descriptions of the other three theories. They accentuated Giger and Davidhizar’s interest in cultural dimensions, such as space, communication, social organization, environmental control, time, and biological variation, which determine a person’s culture. Purnell’s theory is based on individuals’ attributes, including experiences, incitement, and vision of care and disease. Campinha-Bacote’s theory is described in the article as operating the concept of cultural competence. Albougami et al. (2016) also provided the critical analysis of the mentioned models and concluded that all four theories are effective in the context of transcultural nursing, but Leininger’s theory is viewed as one of the first models that contributed to the development of the idea of transculturalism in healthcare.

Summary of Article Two

In the article on the theory of transcultural nursing, Busher Betancourt (2015) described all the aspects of Madeleine Leininger’s approach. The author started with accentuating the role of the theory of transcultural nursing for nurses in a modern world with the focus on providing care for diverse patients. Then, Busher Betancourt (2015) presented a background for the development of this theory as Leininger’s contribution to improving nurse-patient relationships. The third important section of the article emphasizes the globalization of care concerning addressing the needs of diverse populations and immigrants among others. Much attention is also paid to discussing specific benefits of transculturalism in the context of Leininger’s theory. These benefits are associated with providing patient-oriented care. The researcher also identified discrepancies in culture-oriented care that nurses can face when applying Leininger’s theory. If nurses have some biases, they cannot succeed in providing effective care.

The further detailed analysis of Leininger’s theory includes the discussion of how she proposed to apply her approach to nursing care. Nurses should have specific knowledge about the culture of patients and develop cross-cultural skills to provide high-quality care. Busher Betancourt (2015) also referred to future applications of transcultural nursing principles and concluded that transcultural practice is extremely important in the United States. The large section on reflection on Leininger’s approach allows for understanding how novice and experienced nurses can successfully use the theory of transcultural nursing to improve their care. The author also concluded the role of the theory in changing care with the focus on the cultural response and competence of nurses.


Albougami, A. S., Pounds, K. G., & Alotaibi, J. S. (2016). Comparison of four cultural competence models in transcultural nursing: A discussion paper. International Archives of Nursing and Health Care, 2(3), 1-5.

Busher Betancourt, D. A. (2015). Madeleine Leininger and the transcultural theory of nursing. The Downtown Review, 2(1), 1-8.

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