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Analysis of Nursing Theory Concept

Nursing Theorist and Background

I am currently working as a dialysis nurse (DN). I possess the best competencies and skills as a caregiver. I always provide adequate care and support to patients with End-stage Renal Disease. Many theorists have presented the best skills and concepts towards providing quality care to different patients. One of my best models for nurses is Madeleine Leininger’s Culture Care Theory. This theory is applicable in my nursing practice because it “presents the best ideas and concepts towards better patient support” (Lancellotti, 2008, p. 181). The theory encourages nurses and caregivers to analyze the health needs of their patients. Caregivers should address the health demands of every diverse group. I always use Leininger’s trans-cultural nursing theory “to implement culturally meaningful and acceptable nursing practices” (Jeffreys, 2008, p. 37). I have always used the best resources and skills from this theory in order to achieve my nursing goals. I have used this nursing model to support many patients with End-stage Renal Disease.

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Madeleine’s background contributed a lot to her nursing theory. Her background also played a major role towards the development of the Culture Care Theory. Leininger was a famous American nursing theorist. She was born on July 13, 1925. She “joined St. Anthony’s Hospital Nursing School where she earned her diploma in nursing” (Purnell & Paulanka, 2008, p. 23). She later earned a bachelor’s degree from Creighton University. She later joined the famous Catholic University of America. She received her Master of Science in Nursing from this university. She earned her PhD degree in 1966. She also earned three honorary doctoral degrees. She studied socio-cultural anthropology for her PhD (Lancellotti, 2008). This educational background equipped Leininger with the best skills for her nursing theory. She also examined the socio-cultural needs of her patients and students. She developed her nursing theory using most of the concepts gained from her academic practice.

Leininger published several books between 1980 and 2000. She also published another book in 2002. This book presented useful ideas and practices for better nursing care. Leininger’s first book was “Culture Care Diversity and Universality”. The author published her book in 1991. She later authored “Trans-cultural Nursing” published in 1995. Leininger’s third book was “Trans-cultural Nursing” of 2002. The discussions and ideas presented in these books explore the theory in details. She also developed “a new concept called the Sunrise Model in 1997” (Jeffreys, 2008, p. 39). Such books have equipped learners and scholars with the best concepts about Leininger’s nursing theory. Many scholars and nursing theorists have published different books to support this theory.

The above theory by Leininger addresses many nursing issues or problems. Leininger developed the theory in order to deal with every trans-cultural challenge affecting the field of nursing. Nurses deal with patients from diverse backgrounds. Such patients tend to have unique cultural differences and ideas. Nurses should be ready to provide evidence-based support to these patients without ignoring their socio-cultural backgrounds. Leininger wanted to understand how nurses and physicians could embrace other people’s cultures in order to realize the best goals. Cultural practices and beliefs are critical whenever addressing the health needs of different patients. Cultural differences “will affect the quality of patient support or care” (McFarland, Mixer, Wehbe-Alamah, & Burk, 2012). The theory offers the best frameworks and concepts towards dealing with every problem in nursing. The theory “offers culturally congruent practices that can address social differences between nurses and their patients” (Lancellotti, 2008, p. 182). She also offers “a human care phenomena that can assist nurses whenever providing the best care to their diverse populations or patients” (Purnell & Paulanka, 2008, p. 65).

Theory Description

Leininger uses an inductive reasoning to define her nursing theory. Many theorists “use logical reasoning to develop their nursing models” (Lancellotti, 2008, p. 182). Inductive reasoning begins from a wide set of ideas or knowledge. Leininger uses this approach to explain how cultural barriers and differences can have numerous impacts on the quality of health care. The author encourages professional caregivers to honor the cultural backgrounds of their patients. According to the theorist, the approach will ensure every nurse provides evidence-based support and treatment to his or her patients. Addressing such socio-cultural differences will ensure every patient achieves his or her health goals. The “reasoning approach encourages every caregiver to embrace universality and diversity” (McFarland et al., 2012, p. 165). Nurses and caregivers should be ready to honor and respect these cultural differences. A competent nurse will develop a proper nursing philosophy that supports culturally sensitive practices.

Leininger uses her concepts and terms in a consistent manner in order to develop the best theory. The theory presents the best concepts to the reader. The first concept is trans-cultural nursing. This concept focuses on the cultural aspects of both caregivers and patients. The second concept is culture. The theory “analyzes different customs, likes, beliefs, and rituals” (Purnell & Paulanka, 2008, p. 56). Leininger examines the concepts of wellness and illness in the theory. Wellness and illness “depend on coping strategies and perceptions” (McFarland et al., 2012, p. 169). Cultural competence is another concept because it determines the effective of nursing practice. Healthcare provision is also a critical concept towards supporting the best nursing polices, services, and programs. Leininger also explains how “alternate and traditional models of nursing might affect the quality of healthcare” (Purnell & Paulanka, 2008). Culture will also guide people’s practices and behaviors. Nurses should be ready to communicate with patients from every cultural background. They should also embrace the best medical practices.

Leininger defines the above concepts in an explicit manner. She uses an inductive approach to examine how cultural practices affect people’s health outcomes. She also uses various terms to support her concepts. Some of these terms include “congruent care, cultural awareness, race, cultural shock, acculturation, bio-cultural, trans-cultural nursing, culture, cultural identity, and non-material culture” (McFarland et al., 2012, p. 173). The author defines these terms before describing her nursing theory. These terms summarize Leininger’s theory of nursing. Nurses should embrace such terms whenever using Leininger’s theory. The author’s “explicit interpretation of the above terms and nursing concepts makes it easier for nurses to realize their potentials and goals” (McFarland et al., 2012, p. 173). The author’s consistency in the use of the above terms and concepts makes her theory meaningful and beneficial to every caregiver.

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Leininger “offers the best relationships among the major concepts in her theory” (Lancellotti, 2008, p. 181). A qualified “provider of culturally competent care will use these relationships to address the needs of different patients” (Lancellotti, 2008, p. 181). Nurses should bridge cultural gaps whenever working with patients from diverse backgrounds. The approach will ensure “clients get supportive nursing care” (Purnell & Paulanka, 2008, p. 78). Nurses can use the theory to develop new decisions for better practices. Caregivers should be ready to preserve or maintain the best cultural practices. They should also accommodate their clients without discrimination. They should also re-pattern or restructure their cultural values after providing the required nursing care. Such relationships are critical towards better nursing care.


Leininger builds her Cultural Care Theory on both explicit and implicit values. Some communities or races use various substances and objects that might affect their health outcomes. Religious practices and traditional medicines will have huge impacts on people’s health conditions. Gender roles and beliefs also affect people’s health outcomes. Leininger also explains why personal space is a critical value. The author uses the concept of cultural shock to explain how people respond to different events or problems. Nurses should consider these issues whenever providing quality care to their patients (Purnell & Paulanka, 2008). Cultural awareness is critical because it affects people’s response to various healthcare practices. The author goes further “to explain why such concepts and values should be taken seriously whenever supporting the health needs of different patients” (Purnell & Paulanka, 2008, p. 89).

The theory does not identify or describe the four meta-paradigms of nursing. The theorist presents several elements that are similar to these meta-paradigms. Nurses and caregivers should be ready to address the health expectations of every human being. This concept explains why nurses must embrace the first meta-paradigm of nursing. The author also identifies the socio-cultural, traditional, and religious issues that affect the health outcomes of many people. This description explains why nurses should consider the environmental issues affecting human health. The “third meta-paradigm is health” (Purnell & Paulanka, 2008, p. 102). Leininger’s theory seeks to produce the best health outcomes in every diverse population. The theory combines different terms and concepts in order to provide competent care to patients. This approach makes the theory relevant towards providing the best nursing care. Trans-cultural nursing becomes a critical concept for nurses and caregivers. Trans-cultural nursing ensures “caregivers respect, appreciate, and understand the health needs of diverse populations” (Purnell & Paulanka, 2008, p. 109). These concepts encourage caregivers to use of the four nursing meta-paradigms.

Leininger’s Culture Care Theory is meaningful and applicable in every medical practice. The author defines her nursing theory using the best terms. She uses these terms to identify the best concepts for her model. Such concepts explain why nurses and caregivers must focus on the health demands of their patients. The concepts “are necessary whenever dealing with certain differences arising from people’s culture, race, or religion” (Lancellotti, 2008, p. 180). The reader also understands how to deal with patients from different socio-cultural backgrounds. Nurses can deal with the problems associated with medical care using the above concepts. Many theorists and scholars have supported Leininger Culture Care Theory because it addresses the health challenges affecting diverse populations. The author does not identify the four meta-paradigms of nursing in the theory. However, most of the concepts and practices fulfill the promises of these meta-paradigms. Nurses should always use Leininger’s Culture Care Theory to achieve their professional objectives.


Leininger’s theory is one of the best nursing models towards guiding nursing practice. Nurses and caregivers can use the theory to appreciate and address the needs of their clients. Every nurse can use the theory whenever working with diverse populations. The theory embraces good communication whenever providing nursing care to different patients. Many nurses have developed appropriate nursing philosophies using this model. The practice makes it easier for nurses to deal with the emotional, spiritual, physical, and psychological needs of their patients. Nurses who use this theory are sensitive to “the socio-cultural expectations of their clients” (Lancellotti, 2008, p. 181). The theory will ensure families, patients, and populations receive quality care from their nurses. Nurses will also be ready to use acceptable resources, methods, and practices whenever providing care to their patients.

I am currently working as a Dialysis Nurse (DN). I always use this theory in my area of nursing in order to achieve my goals. The theory encourages me to take into consideration the cultural values and religious beliefs of my patients. The approach will support my nursing philosophy. I will always provide the best nursing care to my patients. The practice will improve the health outcomes of my patients. Nurses can use the theory to support individuals and patients from different cultural backgrounds. Caregivers can use the theory to improve their nursing practices. They will address every health issue affecting their patients (Lancellotti, 2008).

I will use this theory to widen my knowledge as a DN. I will read more articles and books in order to become a provider of culturally competent care. I will always encourage my patients to interact with one another. The practice will improve the level of decision-making in my healthcare center. I will also encourage my clients and employees to continue supporting their relatives, families, and patients (Lancellotti, 2008). Leininger’s Culture Care Theory encourages caregivers to embrace the concept of trans-cultural practice. This theory will make me a competent provider of evidence-based medical care. The practice will make it easier for me to realize my potentials as a DN.

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Reference List

Jeffreys, M. (2008). Dynamics of Diversity: Becoming Better Nurses through Diversity Awareness. Imprint, 54(2), 36-41.

Lancellotti, K. (2008). Culture Care Theory: A Framework for Expanding Awareness of Diversity and Racism in Nursing Education. Journal of Professional Nursing, 24(3), 179-183.

McFarland, M., Mixer, S., Wehbe-Alamah, H., & Burk, R. (2012). Ethno-nursing: A Qualitative Research Method for Studying Culturally Competent Care across Disciplines. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 11(3), 260-279.

Purnell, D., & Paulanka, J. (2008). Trans-cultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach. Philadelphia, PA: FA Davis.

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