As the United States began to expand westward, people considered themselves as liberators. The government believed that this expansion would make the territory secure and free from violence. This would in turn lead to civilization of the Indian populations thereby minimizing the Apache threat.
During the early years that the U.S was in control, it was extremely peaceful and settlers agreed with the Apache groups to provide them with goods in favor of peace. However, conflict arose between them in 1860s. A cultural misunderstanding caused the conflict. Despite the agreements made, Apache groups still raided other settlements and depended on raiding as their source of food and supplies.
Apparently, the U.S groups could not distinguish between the Apache groups and the O’odham and could not tell who they had made agreements with to maintain peace. They therefore thought that the Apache groups had gone contrary to the agreement because of the continuous raiding. The U.S government took the initiative of sending troops to deal with this situation.
The government however found it tricky to deal with the conflicting groups. At times, the government surprised the Apache groups in their communities and campgrounds, killed men, women and children. Other than that, they also destroyed their homes, crops, and food stores rendering this group desperate.
The U.S government did not know that by ruining the food sources, it was making the situation worse and the warring groups would be bitter with the situation leading to more conflicts. The Apache groups took a revenge mission for what the U.S troops had done to their community. The Apache groups mutilated bodies of U.S troops and they killed U.S settlers.
Consequently, the Apache groups also destroyed property belonging to the U.S, burnt buildings, destroyed mining equipment, and ruined their possession while raiding. Guadalupe Hidalgo treaty continued while the war increased. Mexicans were so angry over huge loss of territory that was sustained by the government. They agreed to overthrow this government leading to the establishment of a new government in 1861. The United States had significantly gained a huge territory that led to the Civil War.
The government sent its troops to fight the war that left Arizona defenseless. During this war, the conflict between the Apache and U.S settlers was ongoing. The people of Arizona were in most cases left to deal with the Apache on their own. Citizen volunteers, majorly the Mexicans, led the fight for revenge to the Apache groups who had stolen their livestock or even kidnapped their family members.
O’odham people were urged by the U.S government to stop attacking the Apache groups. Payment was offered to them in the form of food, clothing, or money in return to the Apache scalps. The government also offered to help the Apache groups who were living in the establicimientos de Paz leading to termination of the Civil War in 1865.
The U.S government now wanted to concentrate on the Indian groups in the Western part of the country. The majority of those in the United States advocated for a harsher response while violence in the west was growing. Arizonians in the Southern thought it wise that the Apache groups only knew about violence and nothing else.
The U.S President created a new peace policy in 1869. The executive decided to create a portion of the territory for the Indians and Fort Apache was also established in 1870. The Apache were divided on whether to trust the U.S government or not. The executive in return encouraged them, but the war persisted even after the attempt made to give each community a territory, such as the Apache groups who were offered Port Apache for their settlement.