Visually Impaired Youth College-to-Work Transition


The article by Capella-McDonnall and Crudden (2009) sought to examine various issues, which affect the youths with visual impairments, especially when they are transitioning from college or high school to employment. What elements influence the triumphant absorption of transition-age visually disabled adolescents in the job market? The article sought to answer this question. In the initial explanation of the key points, Capella-McDonnall and Crudden (2009) mention that the transition to employment from school is a popular discussion topic, although little or no follow up in terms of research has been consistently carried out. They support the main points by showing how such research would identify the variables, which influence the visually impaired teenagers’ shifting process (Capella-McDonnall & Crudden, 2009). Nevertheless, regardless of the rarity of this experiential study, a substantial exploration has been conducted on the transition-age of teenagers who experience other disabilities.

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The author’s initial objectives were to investigate the elements that determine the successful shifting of visually challenged transition-age adolescents from state custody to the job market. The authors carried out a literature review on the subject to arrive at their conclusion of the various components that influence the said shifting of the youths under study. They also gathered data from a sample of 41 visually challenged teenagers. The results revealed job exposure, educational level, and self-esteem as some of the factors at play in the transition process of these youths. However, the problem statement was not clearly stated. Thus, to classify the dilemma, the scholars needed to acknowledge more data or findings to highlight the elevated level of joblessness of visually damaged teenagers. For instance, any prior study on the same research question would have provided an excellent example, which would reveal the extent of idleness among the specified class of adolescents. Thus, the existence of such information could have easily provided the purpose of this study.

Evaluation of Research Methods

Capella-McDonnall and Crudden (2009) provided a literature review of the subject under investigation. The literature review defined the variables at play while at the same time explaining how they have been previously studied. The presence of a literature review enabled the reader to develop a more informed understanding of the amount and level of prior research done on the research topic, specifically on each variable. Additionally, the reader could acquire a concise idea of the direction of the research study regarding what the researchers wanted to analyze. In the literature review, the researchers discussed the importance of self-resilience, job exposure, confidence, the role of assistive equipment, and educational capability in influencing the rate of shifting of visually disabled transition-age teenagers from state care to the employment sector (Capella-McDonnall & Crudden, 2009). Despite these elements being distinct, the scholars only specified them as the variables afterward instead of revealing them early in the preliminary section. The importance of the preceding study materials and information was to reveal any connection between securing a job and every element. However, the review focused only on secondary school students (youths) with disabilities while failing to incorporate research that specifically dealt with visually impaired students in other education levels.

The research was relevant to current health issues. Prior research shows that a majority of visually impaired students fail to transition into employment, despite their educational qualifications. The situation results from a pre-existing bias towards this category of people.

The research type applied is an experimental design because the researchers control other variables except from one, which is manipulated. The dependent variable in this research was employment while the independent elements included self-resilience, employment familiarity, self-worth, locus of control, the level of connection between a visually- impaired student to a therapist, assistive technology, and educational proficiency. Additionally, the research type also revealed the methodology for the measurement of each independent variable and the limitations that were to be made for the control group.

The population of interest for this study was transition-age visually impaired youths (Capella-McDonnall & Crudden, 2009) deduced from the Longitudinal Study of the Vocational Rehabilitation Services Program (LSVRSP) from the website of Cornell University. To obtain the sample, the researchers applied the multi-state intricate design principle to collect the data from the population. There lacked information regarding ethical considerations for this study. The supposition is that the data might have been available in the LSVRSP dossier that had unrestricted details. The sample was composed of youths aged below twenty-one years who had either major or minor visual mutilation. The final sample contained forty-one teenagers. Such a sample was biased since it was small in comparison with the initial data set of more than 8,500 people. Consequently, the reader was left confused as to how the sample was determined. Therefore, the sample could be deemed inappropriate and thus biased since no further explanation was provided by the researchers.

Despite the flaws in this research, the work is practical since it demonstrates the existence of a connection between the variables researched, namely, the locus of control and occupation familiarity, among others, and the visually impaired youths’ employment level. Although this information should not be generalized due to the underlying errors in sampling, the authors reveal how it can be applied to job-seeking youths with visual impairments. I believe that counselors can also apply for the work in their vocational rehabilitation programs.

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This study could be improved to rectify several errors and/or offer concrete information, which would be requisite in the research. For instance, the clarification on how the variables were deduced could have been enhanced for any interested scholar to understand the procedure.

Due to the incomplete provision of the necessary information, counterarguments, or contradicting research, the writing of the article is not straightforward. It is difficult for readers to understand the total circumstances under which visually impaired youths seek employment and/or why certain variables were chosen.

However, further research can be carried out on this research topic bearing in mind the errors made by the current researchers. For instance, the definition of the dependent variables was vague since it did not elaborate whether “employment” referred to part-time, full-time or both, and/or temporary or permanent, including the minimum expected wages. Consequently, further research would take note of the misleading results.


In my view, the authors need to have accredited areas where more study was recommended since various contemporary issues have never been earlier investigated in detail. For instance, in their conclusive remarks, the scholars acknowledged that the many statistical trials and the relatively limited sample exponentially raised the probability of inaccuracies in the results. Therefore, both the internal and external validity of the sample selection process would have been compromised. Specifically, the sample seemingly failing to be gathered via a random selection process presented an internal validity threat whereas flaws in the design resulted in an external risk towards validity since the findings could not be replicated or applied to a larger population.


Capella-McDonnall, M., & Crudden, A. (2009). Factors affecting the successful employment of transition-age youths with visual impairments. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 103(6), 329-341.

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"Visually Impaired Youth College-to-Work Transition." StudyCorgi, 4 Jan. 2021,

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StudyCorgi. "Visually Impaired Youth College-to-Work Transition." January 4, 2021.


StudyCorgi. 2021. "Visually Impaired Youth College-to-Work Transition." January 4, 2021.


StudyCorgi. (2021) 'Visually Impaired Youth College-to-Work Transition'. 4 January.

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