Although gunpowder was extremely important at the final stages of the Hundred Years’ War seemingly, it would just prolong the conflict, but France would still be a victor in the end. Usage of artillery, indeed, helped the French army to conquer the territories at faster rates. Also, it was a major factor that determined the victories in such decisive military combats as the battles of Formigny (1450) and Castillon (1453) (Parker 8). Moreover, gunpowder allowed French forces to finally outperform English longbow archers in a long-range fight. Nevertheless, there were other factors that ensured the loss of England in the long run. Firstly, England struggled from constant revolts both at home and in newly conquered territories which led to army dispersion and monetary losses. Additionally, the growing contradictions between English aristocracy and Henry VI’s inability to consolidate power – which was one of the causes of the Wars of the Roses – further diminished the realm’s strength (Fukuyama 19). On the other hand, Charles successfully reformed the army and established the permanent land tax, which significantly increased his military force.
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Parker, Geoffrey. “The” Military Revolution,” 1560–1660—a Myth?” Warfare in Early Modern Europe 1450–1660, edited by Paul E.J. Hammer, Routledge, 2017, pp. 1-20.