Civilization is defined as process through which societies advance in development and technology. It a way of life for people and religion is its defining aspect (Huntington, 1996). This discussion will look at the criteria for a great civilization. Compare the Roman and Mesopotamian Empires. Look at ways in which the 21st century ideas differ from these civilizations and finally what makes a society great.
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The criteria for a great civilization are when people are contented. They respect law and order and hence a country’s economy and culture flourishes. When there is respect of other people’s culture. Thus they are able to tolerate differences in their cultures and world views. Peace and harmony is another criterion for a great civilization. A great civilization would mean that the countries of the world live in peace and in harmony. The developments made should be to benefit the humanity not to harm them like nuclear weapons.
The Roman Empire started from a small region in central Italy as early as 753 BC.
Rome has many achievements in civilization. It is said to be the cradle of technology, culture, literature and architecture in ancient world (Roman Empire n. d). The Roman engineers created a network of roads; discovered “the concept of running water” (Roman Empire n. d). Through this concept they supplied water to the public.
They developed the alphabets and roman numbers that are used in many languages in Europe. The Romans invested heavily in the army and through their care of the soldiers they discovered public health (Roman civilization n. d.). Roman civilization is associated with technology, war, art, language, architecture and laws and it still influences the modern world greatly. (Pillai, 2008).
The achievements of the Mesopotamian civilization are many. It is said to be the heart of civilization. They contributed to the world of history and mathematics e.g. Pythagoras theory. Mesopotamia on the other hand is accredited with civilization. Mesopotamia was ‘the first urban civilization” (Pollock, 1999). People were living close to one another and economic and social structures were put in place to ensure a peaceful coexistent. Mesopotamia was an area between Tigris and the Euphrates River. People in Mesopotamia invented and used irrigation to grow crops using canals network. Thus Mesopotamia became a great producer of food and it was able to feed a lot of people.
Mesopotamia was able to produce raw materials that were used to produce gods to be imported. The most important raw material from Mesopotamia was clay used for making mud bricks that were used in architecture, pottery and clay figurines. The Mesopotamians used clay as a stamp as an ownership mark. This was an achievement considered invention in the art of writing. Mesopotamia introduced education i.e. formal education that trained in religion, writing and reading. The education also trained in astrology, law and medicine leaders such as priests (Pollock, 1999).
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Civilization ideas in the 21st century differ from those of ancient civilization. The modern civilization is happening in the era of globalization where we have countries dependent on one another in trade. The advancement in technology in this civilization is fast and very complex unlike the ancient.
It has to deal with issues like terrorism that has become a major threat to the security of the citizens of the world. There are diseases that have come like HIV/AIDS which threaten humanity. The 21st century civilization is now based on a society that is based on information and technology whereas in the early civilization it was agrarian.
A society that can feed its habitats is great. Every individual should have access to food. The society should produce adequate food or import. This can be guaranteed if the economy is strong and the employed and those in own businesses are able to make enough money for their lively hood.
Everyone should be able to access medical care. People should not die from curable diseases curable diseases or due to lack of money to seek medical care. The health system should also be in a position to cater for all by having adequate staff and medicines. On the other hand every child should be able to get an education it makes a society great. This will ensure that the children grow up and are equipped with the necessary skills to enter the business world.
Finally a society that is secure and safe. When there is security in society people are able to carry out economic activities. They do this knowing that they will reap from their hard labor because no thieves will come to steal. With security investors and visitors can visit and this means well for the economy. When neighbors live in peace and respect each others right to life we have a great society.
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Huntington, S. The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996). Samuel Huntington, “The Clash of Civilizations”, Foreign Affairs, 72, 3 (1993), pages 22-49.
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Pillai, M. (2008). Ancient Roman Achievements. Web.
Pollock, S. (1999). Ancient Mesopotamia: the eden that never was, London: Cambridge University Press. Web.
Love, R. L. (1991). Antiquity and capitalism: Max Weber and the sociological foundations of Roman civilization, London: Rout ledge. Web.
Roman civilization. 2009. Web.
Roman Empire. 2009. Web.