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Wrong Time Medication Administration Errors Study

This paper is an in-depth critique of the study by Taufiq (2015) that focuses on wrong time medication administration errors (WTMAE). The selected research is conducted in accordance with the quantitative research approach and presents empirical data related to the prevalence and causes of medical errors. This critique integrates various elements of analysis, including data collection, interpretation, ethical issues, etc.

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Title of the Research Report

The title of the study is “Prevalence and causes of wrong time medication administration errors: Experience at a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan”. It identifies the target population of Pakistani as well as the theme of the research. From the title, a reader quickly understands that such variables of WTMAE as occurrence and reasons compose the object of the investigation. However, the type of study is not revealed in the title, yet it is specified in the methodology section.

Problem Statement

Identifying the problem, the author points out that WTMAE significantly threatens patent safety, leading to severe harm or even lethal outcome. In other words, the pertinent background shows that the problem of timely medical administration is somewhat relevant to modern nursing that, in its turn, justifies the initiation of the study and the necessity to explore the topic thoroughly. The problem can be regarded as researchable as necessary data can be easily collected and evaluated by an electronic medication administration record (eMAR).

Conceptual Framework

As a conceptual framework, the author applies descriptive research, mentioning it in the study design section of the article. It seems that the chosen framework is quite applicable to this research as it allows properly supporting the collected data. Providing numerical data, the author explains and interprets it to make the findings clear for both scholars and average readers. Therefore, it is possible to state that the model is developed and comprehensible.

Review of Literature

To back up her study with evidence, Taufiq (2015) considers the articles of different scholars, working in the field of medication administration errors (MAE) and WTMAE. Several relevant databases that include both primary and secondary sources are used to overview the current literature while the classic citations are not used. Critically reviewing the collected literature, the author integrates it into the table format, distinguishing such subheadings as country, setting, method, outcome, and recommendations. Such an approach helps to visualise information that promotes comprehensiveness and logical organisation of the literature review. For example, it is easy to note that there are such countries as the USA, the UK, France, and the Netherlands that makes it possible to conclude that the study has an international nature. The researcher cites both opposing and supporting views, principally focusing on primary sources. The only flaw is that no summary complements the literature review.

Purpose of the Study and Hypothesis

The purpose of the study is indicated explicitly at the very beginning of the study. It can be revealed as follows: To explore the prevalence and causes of WTMAE among patients of a tertiary care university hospital in Pakistan. The declarative statement used by the author seems to be appropriate for the study. Even though there are no research questions or hypotheses, it can be understood from the introduction and literature review that high rates of WTMAE are expected to be discovered. As it was mentioned above, the variables are defined operationally. The descriptive study design supported with quantitative research approach is selected appropriately, fitting to the purpose of the study and its variables. The mentioned study design can be evaluated as a deliberate solution, integrating quantitative data along with its interpretation and further recommendations.


Taufiq (2015) uses a universal sampling technique to collect medical information from February 10, 2012, to May 9, 2012. The three months is selected according to the probability method that fits the purpose of the research. The study covers the patients of one Pakistan hospital that serves more than 650 000 people. It is clearly stated that the five departments are taken into account, including medical, intensive care, surgical, pediatric, and coronary care units. No inclusion and exclusion criteria are identified. The author indicates no threats to the external validity of the study.

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Data Collections Procedures, Instruments, Analysis, and Results

Data collection steps are poorly described as it is just noted that eMAR system is used to collect data that then is transferred to Microsoft Excel. The above instruments as well as SPSS version 19 program and Chi-square test that are used to collect and analyse data seem to be relevant to this study due to their understandable and accurate nature. Meanwhile, these tools are valid and utilised by plenty of studies all over the globe. Although validity terms are not discussed, the description of each of the statistical tools involves the purpose of its application and corresponds to the methodology. The scores of validity are not specified.

The results of the study begin with the statement of the fact that 17 per cent prevalence of WTMAEs is discovered, thus addressing the purpose of the research. Therefore, the characteristics of the sample are not given, and the research question is answered separately. The results are not limited to data reflect as they also involve brief detailing of distinction between day and night shifts, for example. No improper generalisations are detected. The author uses several tables and figures to illustrate her findings that are carefully labelled and mentioned in the text.

Discussion, Recommendations, and Generalisations

The limitation of the study concerns the fact that it can be generalised only to the third-world countries. The researcher undoubtedly relates the findings to the problem and the purpose of the study, claiming that timing errors that are discovered in the course of the research can threaten patient safety. It is also noted that the study supports the literature review as it detects the same tendencies of timing errors. No serendipitous findings are mentioned. There are no generalisations made beyond the study. Based on the results, the author provides valuable recommendations concerning nursing practice and perspective research. In particular, it is recommended that nurses to become more sensitive to on-time medication administration that should be ensured by management. Besides, continuous control and intervallic review of WTMAE through eMAE is necessary. The article lacks recommendations regarding education.

Ethical Issues

The author emphasises that all the information is collected and analysed after the approval of hospital departmental leaders and the Ethical Review Committee (ERC). Such human subjects as anonymity and confidentiality are not presented.


To conclude, it should be noted that the study is essential and relevant to modern nursing needs and standards as it highlights the question of timely medication administration. At this point, eMAE system is a vital means of exploring the theme. In general, the article can be assessed as valid, critical, and contributing to the nursing area. Even though it lacks some elements such as generalisation or detailed description of data collection procedure and sampling, the study is undoubtedly worth turning one’s attention to it. This assignment helps to train analytical skills and understand the organisation of quantitative research.


Taufiq, S. (2015). Prevalence and causes of wrong time medication administration errors: Experience at a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. Canadian Journal of Nursing Informatics, 10(1), 1-16.

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