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Young Mothers-Smokers: The Transtheoretical Model

Emancipatory Knowing in Practice

In terms of emancipatory knowing, it is possible to consider a situation with young mothers, who regard themselves as caregivers and the embodiment of womanhood. Their position is quite satisfactory for them, and the majority does not pay attention to a range of other existing options for development and personal health. The core problem is that the above population smokes. Freire regards human existence as a continuous dialogue between people and nature, between a man and God (Butts & Rich, 2015). This dialogue makes a person a historical and social being, while the dialogue in the framework of the above knowing includes passion, hope, and truth. Only in this case, the integration of people can be achieved as well as critical analysis and research. The innovative action is dialogical and always assumes the consciousness of acting personalities. The process of increasing consciousness called conscientization is an essential component of liberation and a holistic view (Miranda-Galarza, Lusli, Zweekhorst, & Budge, 2013). In this regard, the implementation of emancipatory knowing may help to enlarge the perspectives of young mothers to assist them in realizing their potential and improving their lives by resolving smoking-associated problems and preventing the onset of others.

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At this point, Freire goes in line with Habermas’ critical social philosophy, for which the act of self-reflection changes the world and represents the liberation movement. In conscientization as a practice of liberation, genuine reflection is to be accomplished, which constitutes the first step and the first guarantor of liberation, as stated by Snyder (2014). The achievements of the critical hermeneutics of Habermas contain the attribution of the latter a distinct pragmatic character, the protection of democratic values, and the development of the original version of discursive along with communicative philosophy. From the practical view, the mentioned theory is likely to increase young mothers’ awareness of the larger opportunities. In other words, this refers to a civil society with its honesty and transparency, which opens wide opportunities for a productive dialogue. In the absence of the latter, social reality would seem to be something self-evident. The suggested discourse outlines the way to the new rationality of communities in guiding care.

Applying the Stages of Change to a Patient Problem

The transtheoretical model discussed by Prochaska and DiClemente (1983) involves five consistent stages that are as follows: pre-contemplation, contemplation, action, maintenance, and relapse. Considering that the given population smokes, the pivotal goal is to help young mothers in quitting smoking. The stage of contemplation should include the initial dialogue with patients on the subject of smoking’s adverse impacts both on them and their children. The second stage of contemplation is to focus on increasing patients’ consciousness using open dialogue and feedback. The bridge between contemplation and action is critical self-reevaluation of patients, the result of which is the movement to specific actions and self-liberation (Koerner, 2009). After that, maintenance implies continuous observance of the patients’ states, while it is significant to address their concerns, questions, and any other difficulties that may occur in the process of change. According to the last stage of relapse, there may be patients who apply self-reinforcement to avoid recrudescence and relapsers. While the former may be considered those who successfully changed, the latter needs more attention and work to enhance their health states. Even though relapses may happen, they can also be effectively addressed in terms of the transtheoretical model.


Butts, J. B., & Rich, K. L. (2015). Philosophies and theories for advanced nursing practice (2nd ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Koerner, J. (2009). Insight: The application of complexity science to decision making. Creative Nursing, 15(4), 165-171.

Miranda-Galarza, B., Lusli, M., Zweekhorst, M., & Budge, F. (2013). The power of personal knowledge: Reflecting on conscientization in lives of disabled people and people affected by leprosy in Cirebon, Indonesia. Knowledge Management for Development, 9(2), 85-104.

Prochaska, J.O. & DiClemente, C.C. (1983). Stages and processes of self-change of smoking: Toward an integrative model of change. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51(1), 390-395.

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Snyder, M. (2014). Emancipatory knowing: Empowering nursing students toward reflection and action. Journal of Nursing Education, 53(2), 65-69.

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1. StudyCorgi. "Young Mothers-Smokers: The Transtheoretical Model." December 29, 2021.


StudyCorgi. "Young Mothers-Smokers: The Transtheoretical Model." December 29, 2021.


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StudyCorgi. (2021) 'Young Mothers-Smokers: The Transtheoretical Model'. 29 December.

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