The disparities in the American healthcare system have been depicted in the form of discrimination, which takes place when people from different socioeconomic, cultural, and racial groups try to access healthcare services. In most cases, the disparities in providing health services emerge when different or particular groups try to access health care. Several policy strategies should be implemented to eliminate inequality. The paper discusses the abbreviated research plan including mixed techniques, quantitative techniques as well as qualitative research methods.
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The United States of America’s government has made a significant effort towards the achievement of a robust healthcare system. According to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (2011), there have been persistent constraints in the quality of health care among racial and ethnic minority groups. The report further reveals striking disparities in the provision of health-care services to people with low income, adults over the age of 65, Blacks, Hispanics, Asians, American Indians, and Alaska Natives (Hoskins & Mariano, 2004). In some of these groups, disparities of as high as 49% were reported. These disparities were reported mainly on the quality of care as well as access to care (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011).
In health care, it is the primary objective of the government to ensure that all citizens have access to equal and high-quality services. However, other inherent barriers include limited health insurance. Addressing the healthcare disparities problem is undoubtedly a herculean task. Notwithstanding, the approach chosen must take into account the fact that disparities are population-specific. The research looks at the mechanics of using an integrated quantitative approach to address this problem (Smith, 2012).
This research aims to develop a viable and applicable population-specific design that will enable the quantification of the said health disparities between different groups of interest. The results will then be integrated to come up with the final abstract figure of the total population affected as well as the specific details. The approach will be used since there are no difficulties in getting a uniform national database consisting of all these approaches. It is expected to provide a very comprehensive approach to incorporating all the factors that may lead to such disparities such as education and local empowerment, access to services, biases, and other factors. Group-specific interventions will be suggested based on the outcomes of the problem (Singh & Siahpush, 2006).
- What factors have led to the said disparities in the healthcare services?
- What percentage of a particular group is affected by the healthcare disparities in a given area and how is it affected?
- What is the aggregate number of people from all groups tested is affected by healthcare disparities?
- What specific interventions can be used to address the particular challenges resulting from healthcare disparities?
There is a need for national healthcare agencies to come up with bottom-up strategies for addressing the problem of healthcare disparities. Besides, there is a need to quantify health disparities information of particular groups to come up with group-specific interventions that will address those challenges at the local level.
The primary purpose of this study is to come up with group-specific information and plan on the ways of dealing with healthcare disparities in the country. In order to realize this goal, it will be required for the researcher to come up with a characteristic team of each group that is mentioned as adversely affected by the disparity in health care delivery (Shadish & Campbell, 2002). However, doing this will require a highly stratified population that is not the case in reality. The solution is to obtain information from general participants and the target population. The researcher can then personally stratify them according to the various groups after collecting the data (Reynolds, 2007).
The participants, therefore, will be invited from randomly collected heterogeneous sample groups of the target population. These will preferably include the low-income, with limited insurance, multi-racial and old age groups among other considerations (Peck & Denney, 2012). The sample size will be calculated using any of the available sample size calculators like surveysystem.com for all groups based on the population size and preferred confidence level of 95%. Questionnaires and interviews will then be administered to select the study sample based on the research questions. A pre-survey study will be conducted to establish the validity and breakdown of the questions to be included in the questionnaires and interviews (American Psychological Association, 2010).
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The testing of the hypothesis will be done using a t-test to determine the significance of the results of the study. It will particularly be relevant in making recommendations to the responsible agencies. The results will be presented with the help of charts, graphs, tables, and reports. The interpretation of the study results will be based on the desired healthcare interventions for each of the particular groups unless a general intervention is required.
Abbreviated Qualitative Research Plan
There is an increase in the inequality in accessing Public Health services in the US. Several people are lacking or have limited health insurance which prevents them from accessing health care services, so the use of preventive measures like exercises and diets has increased. Thus, to address this issue, I formulated a plan on how to address the issue.
The research aims to come up with a research plan on how to examine the cause of Public Health disparities among the residents of the US. It seeks to formulate ways to find out the number of people who cannot access both preventive and curative therapies due to particular reasons. The plan focuses on investigating social, economic, political, and religious factors that have contributed to this eventuality (National Academy Press, 2009)
How significant are the public health care disparities? What is the situation concerning the health disparities in the US population? What has been done to curb the disparities? What are the challenges encountered to control healthcare disparities?
To avoid the use of quantitative and mixed research methods to prevent bias in a preformed theory and avoid the generalization of some situations, contexts, or individuals qualitative approach is used. The case study will be the most appropriate research methodology since it will give a broader picture of the whole population if you sample correctly (Creswell, 2009). My role in the research will be to determine and organize the scope of the study, coordinate the collection of the findings, and regulate the extent of the research. I will also write down the observations, analyze the data, and draw conclusions and recommendations.
The target population will be people from different socio-political and economic groups in the US. The participants will be randomly chosen from various designated groups (the United States, 2011). Research instruments such as diaries, questionnaires, verbal recordings, and documented records will be used for the study. I will collect the data by using answers from the questionnaires, interviews, and research books to get the data. The best method to use will be questionnaires since people will be able to answer only specific details, and their identity will be protected.
The validity of the information can be compromised by uncooperative respondents and faulty sampling methods (Creswell, 2009). I will strive to brief the respondents on the importance of the research before the interview and make correct samples retain the validity of the data. I will analyze the data by classifying the findings into different parts.
Abbreviated Mixed Methods Plan
Decreasing the healthcare inequalities and enhancing healthcare impartiality in the USA for the neglected residents that include Americans with low salaries, cultural and tribal factions are the pressing needs for assessment and intervention research (Johnson & Christensen, 2010). The application of mixed methods approach to the study of health care act intervention’s benefits and efficacy will enhance the assessment of the impact of social support interventions aimed at reducing health disparities (Curtis & Drennan, 2013). The mixed-method gives ” the benefits of qualitative data; for an in-depth understanding of underserved population’s needs, support resources, intervention preferences, and satisfaction with the services ” (Creswell, 2009). It also permits scientists to apply quantitative procedures to articulate the success and results of the intercession approaches and develop the dependability and rationality of valuations and involvements.
In most cases, the diverse procedures research intends to reduce health-care discrepancies among the citizens of the USA. By the use of mixed methods, this study will examine how variables relate in the form of quantitative data obtained by the use of surveys. In addition, qualitative research was conducted through the examination of experiences through central clusters.
To what degree do ACA packages and awards intend to decrease health-care discrepancies aiming to approach unwanted residents? Will preventive measures such as regular check-ups achieve improvements in curbing diseases?
Using qualitative examination together with quantitative statistics obtained from affiliates of the targeted populace using a society-founded study design provides an accurate assessment of the degree and frequency of deterrent actions provided by the Affordable Care Law packages and awards.
The research plan contains a combination of both quantitative and qualitative theories. The partakers in this particular research comprise the expediency section set from the besieged society with low social and financial statuses.
The main advantages of quantitative research are that its strategic application of inquiry allows the researcher to test and validate the existing theories about how and why a phenomenon occurs. Moreover, test hypotheses constructed before data are obtained to study a large number of people in a determined community or population (Creswell, 2014). Additional pros of the quantitative study are based on the observed outcomes. The investigator may simplify the outcomes provided the gathered information is founded on arbitrary sections of the substantial mass. Using quantitative investigation, the information could be analyzed via the use of arithmetical sequencers and software. The cons, conversely, become openly related to the philosophy and classes utilized by the investigator who may hardly imitate the native populations’ considerations. The knowledge obtained may be too shallow and general to be applied to particular individuals or issues in the community (Creswell, 2009).
The strengths of qualitative research are in the fact that the researcher can inductively generate an explanatory theory of the problem or phenomena. Data collected is based on the participant’s words, insights, perspectives, attitudes, behaviors, and categories. Research is based on numbers that rely on results based on statistics and it is useful to study cases genuinely based on provided individual information (Andrulis, 2010). The limitations of qualitative research may be based on the researcher’s subjectivity, the influence of personal biases, as well as the required experience for coding and data analysis. In qualitative research, data analysis is more time-consuming than quantitative data analysis.
The mixed technique is a blend of the other two investigation procedures. It is advantageous when the strengths of each approach and methodology are used to obtain a more efficient insight into the research problem, issue, or situation (Creswell, 2009). The mixed-method has other advantages such as generalizing the results, obtaining efficient evidence for conclusions to be drawn, and adding understanding gained. However, despite their combined powers, mixed procedures have flaws in inquiry understanding, concept, and training formation. The weaknesses of mixed methods are that it is more expensive and time-consuming (Creswell, 2013). It calls for the investigator’s involvement and knowledge of difficulties in construing the inconsistent outcomes that the other two study methodologies may pose.
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The abridged study procedures used to address the potential answers to moderate healthcare discrepancies must anticipate the ethical issues that may arise during each of the studies. A researcher must protect the research participants, develop trust, and promote integrity to ensure that no misconduct or impropriety arises. A researcher should also ensure privacy defense and adhere to ethical practices. In addition, the researcher is in a position to identify study questions to conduct information exploration and provide an explanation of study outcomes.
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