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Adult Obesity Causes & Consequences


A hereditary predisposition, unhealthy lifestyle habits, and a lack of overall physical-wellness education are factors that lead to developing otherwise preventable conditions, of which obesity is one of the most popular. Through analyzing a family’s genetic history, the danger of becoming overweight was identified as one of the most probable health developments for the participant (TC). The primary modifiable risk factor that could affect the future progression of this disease would be TC’s diet, which could be altered to include healthier eating habits. Developing an individualized patient teaching plan, to introduce TC to the possibilities of his health deteriorating and demonstrating to him lines of preventive action, becomes a crucial part in hindering disease advancement.

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Preventable Disease Overview

It is necessary first to understand symptoms and signs before delving into treatment specifics, primarily to make sure of the prognosis’s correctness. A body mass index (BMI) identifies obesity by evaluating a person’s height (m) over the square of their weight (kg) and a BMI of 30.0 is considered a primary indication of weight-related issues (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2015). Ultimately, professionals identify obesity by the amount of an individual’s excess body fat and diagnose it accordingly while taking into consideration activity levels, diet, and effects of patient-prescribed medication (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2015; CDC, 2018). Thus, obesity becomes easily identifiable through an analysis of health characteristics.

TC does not exhibit signs of obesity, but is at risk of its development, due to a hereditary predisposition and a probable sedentary lifestyle identified by association with an IT career. The most critical factor in considering a patient’s inclination is the fact that “obesity is intergenerational” (Haire-Joshu & Tabak, 2016, p. 265). As identified from the Family’s Genetic History Form, TC’s maternal grandmother was obese, his paternal family has a history of hypertension and heart problems, and the combination of these facts makes TC obesity-susceptible. Currently, TC, like his paternal ancestors, has signs of hypertension, probably due to possible unhealthy eating habits that make possible the future development of excessive weight problems.

Evidence-Based Intervention

If the patient’s food-intake habits are the primary determinants for future obesity, then his diet may be considered an appropriate modifiable risk factor. A paper by Rogers (2018) outlines four effective methods to combat excessive eating such as consuming less energy-dense foods, reducing meal portion sizes, skipping meals, and using low-calorie taste enhancers. While some of these approaches do not seem appropriate, it is necessary to focus on those applicable in the patient’s circumstances and proven to work, such as portioning and reduced snacking (Ackley, Ladwig, & Makic, 2017).

Therefore, because the patient is only at-risk of developing obesity, adopting a disciplined diet becomes a significant step in keeping TC in the susceptible category. This kind of approach means the patient controlling the amount of food he intakes while making it nutritious and avoiding snacks in-between meals, thus maintaining a balance between quality and quantity of cooking.

One of the short-term goals in such an approach would be rooted in the patient individually taking the necessary steps to understand his personal physical health. Another one would be the patient possibly losing some excess weight by controlling his food intake amount as one of the first steps in achieving a healthy diet (Rogers, 2018). The ultimate long-term achievement, however, would be for the patient to make nutritious food for his family’s lifestyle, creating the possibility of removing his children from obesity’s at-risk category.

Implementation: Teaching Plan

Through bringing about an understanding of his family’s history, it would be possible to demonstrate to TC the appropriateness of being placed in the susceptible category for obesity. Additional examples may be apperceived through questioning the patient in regards to the amount of activity his job requires, his exercise levels, and food habits, using his personal experience to support familial tendencies. Thus, through educating TC on family-inherited health inclinations, an understanding of his own wellness and risks to it may be achieved (Ackley et al., 2017). Moderate dieting methods, such as portion control and balanced nutrient intake, would be an appropriate suggestion at this level of patient understanding and health condition.

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Providing the TC with a support structure without the healthcare system becomes an essential factor for his self-aid process, the lacking of which may render it impossible. Handouts and informatory resources, such as the CDC’s (2016) healthy eating section, would be an appropriate and non-frightening start to food-related wellness. As TC is currently at a reasonable level of weight, weight loss would not be an appropriate goal but a possible benefit, and therefore making healthy eating a habit is a more relevant objective.


Analyzing TC’s nutrient intake would be a primary way of surveying the results of the proposed dieting plan supported by a weight-fluctuation analysis, especially if weight loss is not outlined as the principal goal. This method is additionally linked to monitoring the effect of decreased portion sizes, which may negatively affect the number of nutrients received by the patient (Ackley et al., 2017). However, if the patient’s nutrient levels and weight remain unchanging throughout the diet-changing plan, considering patient program adherence, then it would be necessary to include food-unrelated methods, such as exercising.


Considering patient health and familial history circumstances, TC is identified as being at risk for developing obesity due to heredity, supported by sedentary job conditions. Implementing a nutrient-balanced and portion-controlling dieting plan would be an appropriate step in a general wellness goal, possibly withdrawing TC’s family from being obesity-susceptible in the future. In the event of TC’s understanding of his heath specifications, controlling patient nutrient intake throughout the plan would be possible to monitor progress.


Ackley, B. J., Ladwig, G. B., & Makic, M. B. F. (2017). Nursing diagnosis handbook: An evidence-based guide to planning care (11th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

CDC. (2016). Healthy eating for a healthy weight. Web.

CDC. (2018). Adult obesity causes & consequences. Web.

Haire-Joshu, D., & Tabak, R. (2016). Preventing obesity across generations: Evidence for early life intervention. Annual Review of Public Health, 37, 253-271. Web.

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Mayo Clinic Staff. (2015). Obesity – Symptoms & causes. Web.

Rogers, P. J. (2018) Combating excessive eating: A role for four evidence-based remedies. Obesity, 26(S3), S18-S24. Web.

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