The US Civil War managed to leave a considerable print on the national, economical, and political development of the country. It is necessary to stress that the regions which experienced the sharpest changes at this period were the South and the West. The Civil War appeared to be a sectional War that affected and weakened the position of the American nation in general. The South was merely concentrated on political stabilization through democracy; this resulted in the economy weakening. It is necessary to stress that most farmers left for the West and united the Populists. The Civil War brought significant losses to the South; as a result, the region developed the ‘New South Creed’ ideology leading to industrialization and independence formation attempts. Nevertheless, it should be noted that a more beneficial position was observed in the West; the South suffered the ‘crop lien system’ being expressed through numerous debts. The welfare of the West region increased the immigration level and population rate, especially among farmers.
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The Civil War end appeared to be a difficult period for the American farmers; at the end of the 19th century, the states experienced the wave of agrarian movement. It should be stressed that the West region opened significant opportunities for the farmers through opened railroad, allowing them cultivating and making some profits. Nevertheless, this situation resulted in the strong dependence of farmers on commercial interests; land growth resulted in overproduction contributing to hardships of the farmers. The West region production was increased due to mechanical advances in the agriculture sphere and farmland expansion. Overvalued lands led to the over-assessment of state and local taxes being paid in currency form. The profits reduction was based on the necessity to pay for the product storage. Besides, farmers suffered natural disasters of insect infestation resulting in the destruction of millions of crops acres. Farmers at the end of the 19th century were poorly organized in terms of social and cultural aspects. The shift in farmers’ position was to be made through their rights to live on their own land, decreased income taxation, and having the chance to be a part of economic parity.
The 19th century brought the urban revolution to the American nation; it was the period when a number of cities were formed around mines and factories. It should be noted that the end of the 19th century is the time of industrialization, urbanization, and immigration strengthening. Such a situation influenced a number of social, economical, and political factors of the USA; economical opportunities expansion led to transportation development and cities growth. The end of the Civil War impacted the level of immigration; it should be noted that the immigrants, that is ethnic and racial minorities occupied the inner city, through their inability to cover transportation costs. So, the regions, being further from city centers, managed to have a wealthier economic position. Urbanization and industrialization forces influenced social life leading to the formation of class discrimination; the gap between rich and poor appeared to be sharpened, though the period brought economical prosperity to the country. (Brinkley, 2006)
Brinkley, A. The Unfinished Nation. 5th Edition. McGraw-Hill Companies. 2006.
Roberts, R. and Oslon, J. American Experiences. Volume 2, 7th Edition. Longman. 2007.