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An Analysis of the Health Conditions of the Patient with Alzheimer’s Disease

Introduction: Mr. M’s Clinical Manifestations

The analysis of the health conditions of Mr. M. reveals that he has Alzheimer’s disease. This neurodegenerative disease is incurable and is usually associated with memory loss and decline of cognitive abilities (DeTure and Dickson, 2019). The early stages of Alzheimer’s disease are marked by patients difficulties with orientation and memory loss (Kumar et al., 2020). These signs were noticed in Mr. M.’s behavior because, according to his medical records, he forgets the names of family members and often becomes lost because he forgets the number of his room and even where he is.

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In addition to that, Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by difficulties with short-term memory, let alone long-term one (Bondi, Edmonds, and Salmon, 2017). In Mr. M.’s case, it is illustrated by his inability to repeat what he has just read. Finally, Mr. M.’s behavior is characterized by agitation, aggressiveness, and a sense of fear in the condition of aggression. All these are typical manifestations of dementia, of which Alzheimer’s disease is a precise case. Finally, one of the most problematic clinical manifestations present in Mr. M. is his inability to perform daily living (ADLs); he requires assistance with dressing, feeding, and bathing.

Primary and Secondary Medical Diagnoses

Mr. M.’s primary medical diagnosis is Alzheimer’s disease. This conclusion is based on the fact that Mr. M. has issues with memory, space orientation, control of emotions and is incapable of taking care of himself. All of these conditions are discussed in the preceding paragraph. The secondary diagnosis that should be considered for the current patient is prehypertension. According to the American Heart Association’s (n.d.) recommendations, normal systolic blood pressure should be lower than 120 mm/Hg, and normal diastolic blood pressure should be lower than 80 mm/Hg. Mr. M.’s diastolic blood pressure equal 78 mm/Hg and, therefore, is normal.

However, his systolic blood pressure is 123 mm/Hg, which is higher than a proclaimed norm. Hence, Mr.M. has elevated blood pressure. The American Heart Association (n.d.) warns that people with elevated blood pressure often develop high blood pressure. However, this transition could be prevented through control over the blood pressure rates of a patient.

In addition to that, the checkup of Mr. M. reveals that, apart from prehypertension, he suffers from tachypnea. Tachypnea is an abnormal respiration rate (RR) that is higher than 20 breaths per minute. The patient’s RR is 22 breaths per minute, whereas normal RR ranges from 12 to 20 breaths per minute. Another health issue of Mr. M. is a high number of white blood cells (WBCs) in the blood. The normal number of WBCs is from 4.500 to 11.000 (1,000/uL), whereas Mr. M. has 19.2 (1,000/uL). The high number of WBCs is not a problem per se. Instead, it is a sign that he might suffer from other diseases or infections, and, hence, his health conditions should be further investigated. The number of lymphocytes is also higher than normal, and, consequently, the physician should test if a patient is infected or has cancer.

Effects of Health Status on Physical, Psychological, and Emotional Aspects on Mr. M.

From a psychological perspective, people diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease lose self-confidence and independence; they become afraid of the external world. This happens because they can no longer trust themselves and rely on their mental abilities. Besides, Mr. M.’s aggressiveness and agitation are also caused by his disease. Patients with Alzheimer’s cannot control emotions properly and experience difficulties with expressing their feelings.

Furthermore, since Mr. M. cannot dress and feed without a caregiver’s help and often gets lost, he might feel shame. Alzheimer’s disease affects not only psychological and emotional but also physical aspects of patients lives. In the later stages, this degenerative brain disease will make Mr. M. unable to control movements, walk, stand up and sit down independently. Patients with dementia in the later stages could easily fall and, thus, injure themselves.

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Effects of Mr. M.’s Health Status on his family

The study conducted by Liu et al. (2017) reveals that aberrant motor behavior, agitation, and apathy of a patient are the factors that make caregivers and family regard the disease as a heavy burden. Undoubtedly, it is not easy for the family members to cope with the fact that their beloved husband, father, or grandfather loses the ability to think, does remember their names, and soon will forget even his name.

For a nurse, it is essential to understand the emotions of a patient’s family members. Whenever relatives visit Mr. M., nurses should leave them alone to express their feelings without being confused by the presence of medical personnel. It might also be a good idea to patiently answer all the relatives’ questions on what is going on with Mr. M. and what should be expected in the future because they have a right to know the truth.

According to Alzheimer’s Association’s (n.d.) recommendations, it is critical both for a patient and his family and friends to not let the disease affect their communication. It is essential to make all parts of this situation understand that Mr. M. is the same person as he was before the disease. The only different thing is his needs. Despite the fact that Mr. M. lives at the assisted living facility, a nurse should explain to his family members how important it is to spend as much time together as possible.

Mr. M.’s Actual and Potential Problems

The first actual problem faced by Mr. M. is caused by the Alzheimer’s disease. Mr. M.’s inability to care for himself independently is a critical problem. Apart from emotional and psychological discomfort, Mr. M. could accidentally hurt himself, fall, or get lost. Secondly, if Mr. M.’s elevated blood pressure remains untreated, it might become a cause of such physical problems as headaches, nasal bleedings, or vertigo. Thirdly, as soon as Mr. M.’s blood test shows a high number of WBCs and lymphocytes, he is likely to suffer from some infections. If a physician fails to detect a cause of these abnormalities, an infection might harm the patient’s immune system. Finally, Mr. M. is expected to lose his ability to walk independently and communicate with others. This will happen due to the progression of his dementia and, unfortunately, cannot be cured.

Conclusion

To conclude, the analysis of medical information on Mr. M. shows that he suffers from progressive degenerative disease. This health issue is accompanied by prehypertension, tachypnea, and a high number of WBCs and lymphocytes in the blood. Mr. M. and his family members face many psychological and emotional difficulties. In this case, the critical role of nurses is to provide all necessary assistance to Mr. M. and his relatives and friends and give the patient decent palliative care.

References

Alzheimers Association (n.d.). Helping family and friends. Web.

American Heart Association (n.d.). Understanding blood pressure readings. Web.

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Bondi, M. W., Edmonds, E. C., & Salmon, D. P. (2017). Alzheimer’s disease: past, present, and future. Journal of the international neuropsychological society, 23(9-10), 818-831. Web.

DeTure, M. A., & Dickson, D. W. (2019). The neuropathological diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. Molecular neurodegeneration, 14(1), 1-18. Web.

Kumar, A., Sidhu, J., Goyal, A., Tsao, J.W. (2020). Alzheimer Disease. StatPearls Publishing.

Liu, S., Jin, Y., Shi, Z., Huo, Y. R., Guan, Y., Liu, M.,… & Ji, Y. (2017). The effects of behavioral and psychological symptoms on caregiver burden in frontotemporal dementia, Lewy body dementia, and Alzheimer’s disease: clinical experience in China. Aging & mental health, 21(6), 651-657. Web.

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StudyCorgi. (2022, June 29). An Analysis of the Health Conditions of the Patient with Alzheimer’s Disease. Retrieved from https://studycorgi.com/an-analysis-of-the-health-conditions-of-the-patient-with-alzheimers-disease/

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StudyCorgi. 2022. "An Analysis of the Health Conditions of the Patient with Alzheimer’s Disease." June 29, 2022. https://studycorgi.com/an-analysis-of-the-health-conditions-of-the-patient-with-alzheimers-disease/.

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StudyCorgi. (2022) 'An Analysis of the Health Conditions of the Patient with Alzheimer’s Disease'. 29 June.

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