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An Overview of the Roy’s Nursing Framework


Roy nursing framework is a concept to healthcare established by Callista Roy while undertaking her pediatric course in Los Angeles. Motivated by the psychological flexibility of children under medication, Roy proposed the objective of medical care was to aid a patient cope emotionally and psychologically with his/her condition. From 1960 up to date, Roy has revised her framework to accommodate nurses’ feedback. This paper provides an overview of the Roy’s nursing framework, as well as a critical analysis of the various components of the model (Alligood, 2005).

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Roy’s framework describes adaptation as the procedure through which a person or team makes informed decisions of adapting to his or her condition. An adaptive response increases people’s capability of coping, and of achieving goals comprising endurance, development, knowledge of their health and individual and physical adaptation. Efficient adaptation incorporates an awful condition into a person’s life, or as a minimum aids balance off the problem.

Four Components

Roy’s framework indicates that an individual’s adaptation consists of four diverse approaches: the objective approach; which includes essential needs like eating, resting and defending the body; self-based team identity concept, which involves people’s beliefs and emotions regarding themselves; purpose function approach, which consists of the insight of where the person falls within the social system, how people relate to each other and should behave in the society; interdependence approach, which comprises the individual relations people have with relatives, friends and couples.

The objective approach offers the human model’s natural stimuli and relationship to the environment (Black, Hawks, & Keene, 2006). The essential element of the approach is psychological veracity, which consists of the fundamental needs linked to nutrition and protection. Self approach is composed of physical self and individual self. The physical component comprises physical sensation and physical appearance. Individual consistencies represent the individual’s attempts for maintaining self actualization and prevent imbalance. A role comprises various desires about how an individual in a specific location will behave compared to an individual who embraces another location (George, 2005).


In Roy’s framework, nursing aids a patient increase his or her capability of coping, and nurses should be capable of promoting adaptation in all four approaches to health living. To achieve this, nurses assess an individual’s behavior and other elements determining the individual’s capability of adapting, and intervene by helping in the adaptation process (Alligood, 2005).

The nursing procedure

A nurse’s initial step involves assessing the individual’s adaptive ability. The nurse subsequently determines the factor leading to the adaptive capability, both the direct stimuli – an ill parent, an impending surgery – and the more basic behavior in the individual’s health. The nurse then determines the individual’s adjustment challenges; puts in place steps for enhancing adaptation; takes initial strides toward implementing the adaptation process; and lastly assesses the effectiveness of the procedure (Marriner & Raile, 2005).


The Roy nursing framework assesses the critical approaches necessary to healthcare as the patient adaptive model is seen as continuously interrelating with intrinsic and extrinsic physical factors. Factors are viewed as central, appropriate and outstanding. The intrinsic adapting procedures for the patient and for basic human coping models are issues of concern in healthcare. Support to adapting procedures may be the centre of healthcare intercession. The four coping approaches may be the initial steps of the framework that the nurses and students are capable of assimilating.

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Alligood, M. (2005). Nursing Theory Utilization and Application (5th ed.). St Louis: Mosby.

Black, J., Hawks, H., & Keene, M. (2006). Medical surgical nursing (6th ed.). Philadelphia: Elsevier Mosby.

George, B. (2005). Nursing Theories: The Base for Nursing Practice (3rd ed.). St Louis: Mosby.

Marriner, T., & Raile, M. (2005). Nursing theorists and their work (5th ed.). St Louis: Mosby.

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