What does the Theory Study?
Attachment theory is a psychological model that tries to describe the work of interpersonal relationships mechanism. The theory cannot be regarded as general because it attempts at researching topics that are more specific. For instance, it touches upon the types of reactions that people show in relationships. Trying to reveal the biological reasons of attachment, psychologists conducted the research that was to find a connection between attachment and proper neural development. It is believed in the psychological society that person should be able to trust himself or other people in order to enter any long-term relationships. The theory was developed in order to reveal all the primary reasons that motivate people to have short and long-term relationships (Thompson 46).
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Types of Attachment in Children
Attachment that occurs in relationships tends to take various forms according to the circumstances of a certain case. To clarify the nature of this phenomena, researchers proposed their classification of attachment types that is usually applied to children. At first, it can be secure; children who experience attachment of this type are likely to be interested in exploring the world if they feel that an adult who they are attached to is reliable enough (Goldberg and Kerr 18). The second type of attachment is usually experienced by shy and introverted children. They tend to choose one adult to attach to him; as for other people, these children usually feel suspicious about them. The third type of attachment occurs when a child does not trust the adult enough; these children tend to show no emotions during the communication. What is more, they do not have a nerve storm when adult leaves them. It is supposed that these children have experienced an emotional pain and this is why they start to wall off the society (Orlans and Levy 9). The knowledge on the types of attachment turns out to be really helpful when it comes to communication issues that occur in relationships between adults and children.
Types of Attachment in Adults
When the theory of attachment types in children was approved, an attempt to apply the same model to relationships between adults was made. Thus, it was found that there are four types of attachment in adults and these types are almost the same to that of children. Adults with the first type of attachment tend to have positive feelings about themselves and their partners. They show a normal reaction to both close communication and independence. As for the second type, adults who experience it tend to seek for care and attention of their partner too much; as a result, it can make them dependent on the love and care that they get. Attachment of the third type involves being frightened by long-term trusting relations. People having the third type of attachment really want to establish close relationships but their low self-esteem makes them go into shell. As for the fourth type, it is usually experienced by those who consider themselves to be assertive; suppressing their feelings, these people gradually become unable to establish any stable relationship.
From Theory to Practice
There are numerous fields that successfully use attachment theory. Social workers helping children often apply the theory to define whether the relationships between a child and older relatives are of benefit to a child or not. Many important decisions concerning the custody are also made in accordance with the results of relationships’ analysis. What is more, this diagnostic technique can be applied during the session of analytic psychotherapy for families (Holmes 12).
Goldberg, Susan, and John Kerr. Attachment Theory: Social, Developmental, and Clinical Perspectives. Routledge, 2013.
Holmes, Jeremy. The Search for the Secure Base: Attachment Theory and Psychotherapy. Routledge, 2014.
Orlans, Michael, and Terry Levy. Attachment, Trauma, and Healing: Understanding and Treating Attachment Disorder in Children, Families and Adults. Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2014.
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Thompson, Ross. “Attachment Theory and Research.” The Oxford Handbook of Developmental Psychology, 1 Mar. 2013, pp. 37- 46.