Backward Design Phases and Misunderstanding


This is an educational design method of curriculum, whereby, goals are set first before choosing the method of instruction, and forms of assessment.

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According to Doug (2000), the advantage of backward assessment is that the end is known way before the lesson is taught so that instruction will lead the students to what they are to learn (Doug, 2000).

Stages of backward design

Stage 1: Identify the results desired

What is truly important for the student to understand or be able to relate to a discipline or knowledge domain? Enduring understanding, for example, focusing on ideas, topics, or processes (Wiggins, & McTighe, 1998).

Stage 2: Determine acceptable levels of evidence to support that the desired results have occurred

While working on this decision, it is important to have a way in which students will be assessed if they have got the results that were desired. It is also important to assess what will be accepted as student proficiency and proficiency. It also focuses on students’ analytical skills, creativity, ability to workability and to apply what they learn, and developing their oral expression and writing skills.

Stage 3: Design activities that will make the desired results happen

It is vital to decide on the learning collaborative learning tasks and strategies that will enhance the student learning power. The strategies to achieve this include brainstorming session, making inferences from data that are already there, assessing, and analyzing issues that are there.

The design process strategy should be changed by constructing a concept map, whereby, the flowchart and the graphic organizer should be used. If the instructor knows the desired learning outcomes, the instructor will be able to select or develop the learning activities, resources, or environmental.

The most difficult stage is to get the facts of the levels of acceptance that the results that were desired have been achieved. The reason is that someone has to know if students have achieved the desired results.

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Stage 4: Also, there is the need to believe as proof of student understanding and proficiency. And what to accept as evidence of student understanding and proficiency

Teachers are designers. An essential act of education is designing curriculum and experience for learning so that the purposed desired will be achieved. They are necessary to become aware of students’ needs in the teaching process and ensure whether they can attain their goals.

A good design is not so much in getting new skills, but rather, to be able to be thoughtful, and be particular for the purposes, and the results we get when we apply these purposes.


Lesson Plan for ENGINEERING
Lesson Plan Reference: Course Reference: BK2
Lesson Title: DRIVING
Level Lesson duration: 1HR
Lesson Objectives: Example
After the lesson:
  1. The learner should be able to define.
  2. The student should control a vehicle
Summary: The student will understand the principles of driving and controlling a car.

The structures of the lesson plan bring a lot of confusion to the student because it uses rudimentary design strategies. It does not lead students to get to know what they desire, since the objectives come at the end.

This lesson plan could be modified as follows to promote a more accurate and thorough understanding.

Class Objectives: Document the purpose of the class. Ensure that it is limited to a few things.

Course connection objectives: The instructor should describe how the daily goals of the lesson connect to the course goals.

Make use of a task that integrates WTL (writing to learn) for the students’ attention to be caught. The task should be particular and have a connection with the subject, and the course that the students are taking.

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Introduction: Put down the goals regarding what the students will have to learn during the lesson.

Procedures: Put down in writing the tasks that will be done in class including the questions that will be discussed in class.

Conclusion: Describe the goals of the lesson and try connecting students with the overall goal and have them put it down in writing.

Next lesson goal: Have a place where you will put down a reflection and the changes that will be undertaken in the future.


Doug, B. (2009). Classroom strategies for interactive learning. NY: International Reading Assoc.

Wiggins, G., & McTighe, J. (2005). Understanding by design. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall.

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