Education History and Globalization

Tools of Learning described by Kalantzis and Cope

The learning tools that Kalantzis and Cope describe center on the role of information and communication technology. One of the most popular ICT tools is the digital learning media loom which is large and acts as both a communications technology and a learning architecture (Kalantzis & Cope 2008, p. 3).

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The disruption that Pre-Occupies Harvey’s Viewpoint

The disruption that Harvey talks about is related to the 2007 mortgage crisis that resulted in financial turmoil and panic across the globe. The mortgage disruption was largely a result of flawed financial models and excessive borrowing. These characteristics were largely fuelled by the erroneous assumption that home values only go up (Harvey 2010, p. 1).

Hyslop-Marginson and Sears Main Thesis

The thesis captured by Hyslop-Marginson and Sears is that universities and public schools have been largely influenced by neo-liberal thoughts. These academic institutions have continuously devoted substantial effort to the development of human capital with limited research in the sphere of social, economic, and political conditions that influence democratic citizenship. Academic institutions are confronted with continuous pressure to live by the rules set by neo-liberal regimes and corporate domination that emphasizes profitability over people (Hyslop & Sears n.d., p. 311).

How Hajkowicz and Moody obtained their Findings

The findings of Hajkowicz and Moody are based on the analysis done on over 100 megatrends that were contributed by approximately 40 scientists and business development workers from CSIRO (Hajkowicz & Moody 2010, p.3).

Main features of the 2025 global landscape

The main features include A transformed globe characterized by globalization. There is evidence of discord in demographics. Besides, new world players are emerging among them India and China with the role played by western powers declining. The globe is suffering from a scarcity of skills despite the plenty of resources available (National Intelligence Council 2008, p. 3-9).

An Example of a Warrant that could be used in Educational Reasoning

“All students were invited to attend the holiday tuition provided they make the tuition payments before the due date; students who misbehave during the normal school days will be denied the opportunity to attend the tuition by the class teacher.”

What did Rudd and Smith mean when they said that “Education is the platform on which our future economic prosperity will rest”

Small and large communities in addition to all regions within a country benefit economically when children are educated. Similarly, when international students travel to study in a particular country, the host country stands to benefit substantially in terms of future foreign policy and trade dealings in foreign countries. Furthermore, an educated population is efficient in value creation.

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Sauls basis for building a middle-class democracy

Middle-class democracies were developed on grounds that the general citizenry grant upon themselves the right to a system of public education that is democratic that offers the highest possible equality. He believed that this was the only alternative that the middle class could be educating themselves in readiness to engage as citizens (Saul 1999, p. 1).

Reid et al. View on the central role of schooling and its consistency with Connells view of formal education as “the development of the capacity for social practice”

According to Reid et al., schooling plays a key role in preparing students to be fully independent citizens who have the right and the ability to engage in both democratic exercise and control of power. This is in line with Cornells view that education creates capacity for social practice.

The relevance of Sennett’s statement to education

Sennetts statement emphasizes unity through education. Students from different races study in the same classroom, they are taught by the same teacher, and they use the same curricula. These elements act as uniting factors; out of many, they are one. Through education, individuals attain a sense of belonging in the society (Sennett 1998, p. 137).

Baldwin demand of teachers

Baldwin encourages the teachers to speak the truth about the inequality between the Negros and the whites in the United States and to offer adequate training to the Negros so that they can learn not only about themselves and the contributions they can make toward the advancement of their culture (Baldwin 1985, p.325).

Links between Fraser’s perspective dualism and the views expressed by Sennett

Both Fraser and Sennett highlight the importance of recognition and redistribution in society. They argue that a society that exhibits inequality in wealth lacks recognition for its people. Both of them highlight the importance of a community.

The Draft Shape of the Australian Curriculum

The new draft curriculum presents a significant shift in focus on citizenship education and participation in governance processes. The curriculum brings in both public discussion and legal status to citizenship education. Nevertheless, neoliberal education practices imply that in the future, a broad range of discussions will not be possible to undertake because of the specific attention paid to the acquisition of knowledge. Similarly, adequate state funding and sufficient knowledge among the teachers to impart civic and citizenship knowledge will reduce differences in power that groups and individuals have over discussions on citizenship education (ACARA 2012, p.4).

With the new curriculum, teachers are equipped with the necessary materials to support the training of young citizens in the area of democratic participation and citizenship. The students will be adequately equipped with knowledge on creating problem-solving techniques, respect for various cultural perspectives, understanding of the various dimensions of power, and the role played by politics both in the private and public participation platform.

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Three areas of civics and citizenship education are evident in the curriculum, these are democratic participation, democratic identity, and world citizenship. This implies that students will gain an in-depth understanding of global problems and systems within the existing framework of government structures and systems (Mills 2009, p. 45). Besides, they will develop the necessary skills for active participation and critical analysis within the available school structures.

They will also be able to explore a variety of values and methods through which discrimination can be addressed. The education will equally equip the students with the knowledge to facilitate their active participation in public affairs, enhance their problem-solving skills and help them to self evaluate their levels of success. The curriculum offers various learning and teaching strategies that include critical thinking, moral development, institutional reform, citizenship as an avenue for global independence, citizenship as a way of civic participation, and value clarification.

These new strategies for citizen and civic participation provide opportunities for civics and citizenship education to tackle the challenges associated with citizenship and civic participation in the modern era. Modern-day citizenship underscores the fact that the youth population, must at all times engage in issues that they consider important to them. By exploring these issues, students gain a better understanding and ability to undertake competent actions.

It permits the development of student potentials to critically assess issues, create actions, undertake actions and assess their actions. Through the active engagement that the draft curriculum offers students will gain an upper hand in critical thinking, problem-solving, and actively participate in the affairs of the country as informed citizens. Multidimensional citizenry highlights the need for mediation skills, unity in diversity, peaceful conflict resolution, and the ability to engage as global citizens not only locally but also globally all of which the curriculum takes into account.

The draft curriculum identifies the need for teachers to possess the necessary skills to facilitate their critique of materials. One of the challenges facing teacher education and indeed professional development is the potential to critically review educational material both in pedagogy and content. If teachers are equipped with the necessary skills, they can make use of a wide range of materials developed by various groups and organizations including the state that publish their opinion through their pedagogy and content. The skills will equally permit teachers to actively participate in the process of text production as they will have a clear understanding of the inherent operating processes (Smith 2007, p. 3).

Finally, the draft curriculum challenges the neo-liberal objective that individuals should be developed independently. In practice, the reality of neo-liberal education is quite different. The debate on civic and citizenship education with the context of the draft curriculum seeks to nurture individuals who observe the spirit and letter of the law and engage with existing structures of the government.

Through the draft curriculum, students will attain the necessary knowledge and skills that will permit them to criticize the processes and systems of government. Citizens will participate in initiatives that support their interests even when such activities challenge existing structures of government. The draft curriculum as it is developed permits student knowledge and skills necessary to confront and challenge existing governance structures (Haynes 2002, p. 4).

The new Citizenship and civic education curriculum offer the youth knowledge, confidence, skills, and understanding necessary to develop personal lives as citizens in society. This creates a brighter future for society as a whole. The new curriculum can be taught through classes, school-wide activities, community initiatives, and informal training.

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List of References

ACARA 2012, Civics and Citizenship Draft Shape Paper, acara. Web.

Baldwin, J 1985, The price of the ticket: collected nonfiction, 1948-1985, St. Martin’s/Marek, New York.

Hajkowicz, S & Moody, J 2010, Our future world: An analysis of global trends, shocks and scenarios, CSIRO, Canberra.

Harvey, D 2010, The enigma of capital: How capitalism dominates the world and how we can master its mood swings, Profile, London.

Haynes, B 2002, Australian education policy: an introduction to critical thinking for teachers and parents, Social Science Press, Katoomba.

Hyslop J & Sears M n.d., ‘Challenging the dominant neo-liberal discourse’, Human Capital Learning to Education for Civil Engagement, vol. 1, pp. 10-26.

Kalantzis, M & Cope, B 2008, New learning: Elements of a science of education, Port Cambridge University Press, London.

Mills, K 2009, Book review, New Learning: Elements of a Science of Education / Mary Kalantzis and Bill Cope, Australian Association for Research in Education (AARE), Port Melbourne, Victoria.

National Intelligence Council 2008, Global Trends 2025: A transformed world. Web.

Saul, J 1999, Democracy and Globalization, abc.net. Web.

Sennett, R 1998, The corrosion of character: the personal consequences of work in the new capitalism, Norton, New York.

Smith, S 2007, ‘The Australian economy needs an education revolution’, Australian labor party, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 106-110.

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