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Border Management Agencies and Principles


The modern world is characterized by a high level of globalization and multiple travel opportunities. The development of different means of transport, especially civil aviation, provided millions of individuals with a chance to move to numerous states. This openness is viewed as one of the most outstanding achievements; however, it also might be taken as a two-edged sword because of the threats and risks it contains. Globalization also offers malefactors, criminals, or even terrorists multiple ways to commit a crime or various attacks. Under these conditions, appropriate border management is one of the major factors guaranteeing the security of the modern world, people’s safety, and countries’ ability to survive and evolve.

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The efficiency of laws and methods used to control the movement of populations depends on numerous factors and remains the primary concern for multiple border management agencies. That is why there are specific regulations, methods, and principles used to enhance the work of such units continuously. For instance, U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) is one of the largest agencies focused on such tasks. It also cooperates with other organizations to remain informed about the recent alterations and respond in appropriate ways.

Basic Tasks

The movement of people and goods is one of the primary concerns for such border management agencies. Thus, the increasing number of flights and other arrivals means that agencies, such as CBP, face numerous daily challenges and focus on their resolution to protect citizens. The prior task is to safeguard borders and enhance the nation’s economic prosperity by ensuring there is no illegal traffic of goods or individuals which might endanger the stability of the state (CBP, 2015).

The complexity and sophistication of the task are evidenced by the fact that the government and intelligence agencies are also involved in the work of CBP and similar authorities as only a collaborative effort can ensure the monitoring, supervision, and protection at desired levels (CBP, 2015). Information and the fast access to it also acquire the top priority as the most powerful tool to track the movement of people and goods and ensure they have all necessary legal rights to move to the state. International collaboration is also a central aspect of the stable and effective work of protection systems. Under these conditions, it is critical to discuss several key aspects of such agencies.

In general, border management is a broad term presupposing multiple factors and focusing on several areas. It is viewed as an approach to monitor all arriving and leaving individuals and collect information about them to ensure there is no illegal migration or transportation of goods (CBP, 2015).

Integrated border management also presupposes data exchange between partners to attain higher security levels and share critical information about suspects or undesired individuals who should be checked and verified (CBP, 2015). It becomes obvious that the collaborated effort is the key to attaining success and securing the border. For instance, CBP acts as the regulator of people and goods movement to the USA and from it, but it also shares information with partners to avoid critical outcomes and potential harm done to other nations (CBP, 2015). This cooperation is central for the final success and establishment of a safe and robust framework helping to detect and prevent undesired cases or breaches.

Legal and Domestic Principles

The legal principles and international and domestic principles are the central tools for ensuring the appropriate border control. CBP functions regarding the existing legislation and regulations accepted by the government to ensure the state’s safety and protect all citizens. Thus, the Homeland Security Act of 2002 outlined that CBP is the vital component necessary for defending the nation’s international borders (CRS, 2020). It presupposes enforcement of federal immigration and customs laws serving as the guide for controlling the arrival and departure of all individuals and the movement of cargoes (CRS, 2020). The authority of the agency also comes from the U.S Customs Service of the Department of Treasure and the Immigration and Naturalization Service, which created the legal basis for the emergence and functioning of the given unit (CRS, 2020).

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Moreover, following the Immigration and Nationality Act, the agency has the right to arrest all people who are suspected of violating the existing immigration laws (CRS, 2020). At the same time, to avoid the abuse of power and control the work of the service, the government offers some constitutional constraints to the authority of CBP. For instance, the Fourth Amendment outlines specific conditions and demands under which arrests should be performed. That is why the work of the given border control agency complies with the existing legislation and regulations, which also serve as the primary instruments to align the stable work of the security system and avoid illegal immigration, cargoes movement, or harmful actions.

International Collaboration

At the same time, as stated previously, border control also demands international collaboration to track the movement of people and cargoes and detect dangerous or undesired elements. For this reason, CBP is also an active member of international treaties, conventions, and regulations. For instance, Convention concerning Customs Facilities for Touring is a multilateral treaty outlining personal effects allowed to be carried by an individual duty-free, while other elements should be reported to the customs or border service (CRS, 2020). This regulation creates the basis for global cooperation and interaction aimed at better control and supervision.

Moreover, the Trade Facilitation and Trade Enforcement Act of 2015 also outlines a list of restrictions and legislations that should be followed by its members to create an environment beneficial for international cooperation (CRS, 2020). CBP complies with the major statements of the Act and views it as the central tool for aligning an adequate border control.

Another core principle underpinning border control is the international collaboration between nations to resist terrorism and control crime. Globalization contributed to the diversification of threats and the emergence of new ways to commit crimes or acts of terror. For this reason, border management agencies view cooperation, data sharing, and support as the key factors for successful protection. Numerous treaties serve as the basis for better interaction. For instance, CBP participates in Customs Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (CTPAT), working with the trade community to enhance border protection and supply chains security (CBP, 2021).

It results in better control and awareness as partners are obliged to observe the rules and regulations and avoid hiding information about suspicious cargoes or objects. Additionally, focusing on protecting the nation’s borders, CBP constantly renews its knowledge base about criminals or dangerous elements that might damage the state or its interests (CBP, 2021). This method ensures better resistance and the ability to consider the latest risks.

Cooperation with Intelligence Services

Effective work of border management also critically depends on cooperation with intelligence services. The core responsibility of the Federal Government is the maintenance of U.S. border security (Brennan, 2017). The complexity of the given task results in the distribution of responsibilities between the Department of Homeland Security, the Department of Defense, and Federal agencies, such as CBP, cooperating with state, local, and law enforcement units (Brennan, 2017). The success of this cooperation also depends on these agencies’ ability to use relevant and up-to-date data about the character of threats to border security (Brennan, 2017).

Under these conditions, intelligence initiatives acquire the top priority as the most effective tool to collect information and share it with CBP (CBP, 2019). Agencies, such as the FBI and CIA, play a vital role in assisting CBP officers in detecting potential threats and responding to them.

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The given cooperation is fundamental for effective border control. For instance, while the FBI’s main tasks do not include monitoring goods and people movement, it works closely with the Office of Homeland Security to support initiatives such as a waiver and visa viper program focused on better protection of the U.S. territory (CBP, 2019). It means that CBP acquires additional tools for control as being provided with information coming from the agency, it becomes able to respond to new threats and detect them better, which is a key to excellence. At the same time, the CIA and the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement can also be viewed as the components of Homeland security, meaning that their cooperation is vital for establishing the framework for enhanced border protection and the ability to detect possible threats (Brennan, 2017).

As a powerful agency, the CIA also possesses some crucial information about the recent crimes and dangers, meaning that it can interact with CBP and keep it informed about the current state’s needs (Brennan, 2017). Under these conditions, intelligence initiatives are a vital component of the border management agency as they result in the increased awareness.

Risk Management Initiatives

Speaking about risk management initiatives, it is vital to state that the agencies focusing on protecting national borders devote much attention to collecting information related to this factor. For instance, CBP emphasizes that the stable work of this agency significantly depends on its awareness about the current risk factors and the scope of knowledge associated with them (CBP, 2015). It means that the introduction of new risk management initiatives is vital for attaining improved outcomes and empowering the existing control and management system. It presupposes data collection via evaluation of already known threats and factors leading to their emergence, cooperation, and international partnership (Brennan, 2017). Additionally, agencies might be offered by the Federal government to respond to new global issues and demand specific responses from CBP (Brennan, 2017). In such a way, risk management is another fundamental area of border protection.

In such a way, intelligence and risk management initiatives play an essential role in establishing an effective border security model. The given practice is accepted globally as different national agencies cannot handle the constantly increasing migration and cargo movement alone. Instead, they engage in cooperation with multiple authorities possessing information necessary for enhanced monitoring and protection.

It is a core aspect of the model accepted today as it creates the basis for further improvement. Moreover, various agencies, such as the FBI, ICE, and CIA, also have partners in different parts of the globe, guaranteeing their ability to respond to new threats and develop new regulations and recommendations vital for protecting citizens, facilities, and national interests (Brennan, 2017). Furthermore, the constant update of such programs and initiatives is a critical demand to the work of border control agencies as they are responsible for minimizing the number of threats and using appropriate measures to respond to them.

Enforcement Initiatives

Enforcement initiatives are another element that is given much attention regarding border control. For instance, CBP acts in terms of the U.S. Customs and Border Protection strategy 2020 to 2025, outlining the core elements of the framework and methods to attain the desired outcomes (CBP, 2019). The document contains the strategic initiative with the attention to awareness and enforcement. It states that by leveraging the existing capabilities, the agency can continue to improve the knowledge of potential and kinetic threats, which is critical for its stable functioning (CBP, 2019). The accomplishment of this goal demands several steps and emphasis on fundamental areas.

The Protection strategy points out that collaboration with federal and law enforcement agencies and global partners is necessary for the proactive disruption of illegal trafficking (CBP, 2019). Moreover, there is a critical need for the layered approach providing all law enforcement professionals with the practical methods, technology, and training that might be needed to perform their job and attain current goals (CBP, 2019). Under these conditions, enforcement is viewed as the vital element of CBP and other border management agencies’ work.

This type of project also presupposes some activities vital for achieving the current goals and is viewed as the plan of the overall strategy. For instance, CBP considers several major areas viewed as necessary for its stable work. It includes improvement of technologies and analytic capabilities to enhance the operational effectiveness; working with partner agencies to maximize programs working with illegal entries; investing in the regular policy revisions as the method to maintain the desired level of awareness and responsibility; maintaining links and relations with state, federal, and local law enforcement agencies which can help to perform some tasks and avoid undesired outcomes (CBP, 2019). These central tasks are critical for ensuring that CBP remains capable of responding to the new threats and controlling the national border. At the same time, achieving these goals, it is possible to create a framework for integrating successful enforcement initiatives.

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Cooperative Arrangements

Finally, speaking about the work of CBP or similar border management agencies, it is vital to mention cooperative arrangements regulating the work of the whole system. As stated previously, interaction, partnership, and collaboration are considered the core of effective individuals’ movement control. For this reason, CBP concentrates on building successful cooperation with other agencies and partners as part of its future (CBP, 2019). It presupposes better intelligence services, advanced analytics, development of IT systems, and expansion of international and domestic partnerships to boost interoperability (CBP, 2019).

It demands multiple arrangements with various units, authorities, and organizations, which might be a complex task (CBP, 2019). However, these efforts will provide the personnel with the improved ability to make decisions using timely and relevant data, analytics, and better risk management outcomes (CBP, 2019). For this reason, CBP plans to support its existing cooperative arrangements and make new ones to consider recent changes in the world.

In such a way, the complexity of tasks any border management agency faces introduces the need to engage in collaboration with multiple partners. They will share up-to-date information about the current threats and risks and train the staff to prepare them for new issues (CBP, 2019). At the same time, the constantly altering nature of hazards and dangers demands the inclusion of new partners having the experience in a certain sphere. For this reason, it is essential to ensure that cooperative arrangements help to address all problematic areas and result in better border security and control. Otherwise, there is a significant risk of failure and inability to perform the most important functions.


Altogether, the modern globalized world offers multiple challenges for border management agencies. The high speed of globalization and the availability of traveling means that millions of people and tons of cargoes can enter states every day. For this reason, agencies responsible for national security and control have to accept new methods and strategies. CBP, as the representative of this cohort, also focuses on the continuous improvement of its work.

It presupposes cooperation with other national agencies to establish an international framework and increase effectiveness. Second, it uses regulations and legislations offered by the government as the primary guidelines for working with individuals. Finally, as it cooperates with other intelligence agencies to introduce new risk management initiatives central for the attainment of desired outcomes and better performance. CBP plans to enhance its work by focusing on the most relevant and critical areas and engaging in new arrangements with other organizations.


Brennan, B. (2017). FBI, CBP, and partners launch campaign to address corruption at America’s borders. FBI. Web.

Congressional Research Service (CRS). (2020). U.S. Customs and Border Protection’s powers and limitations: A brief primer. Web.

U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP). (2015). Vision and strategy 2020. Web.

U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP). (2019). U.S. Customs and Border Protection strategy 2020-2025. Web.

U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP). (2021). Program and partners. Web.

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