Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains one of the health problems affecting many people today. Past studies have tried to analyze the nature of this condition and present evidence-based approaches to help protect more lives. The article “Occupational Versus Leisure Time Physical Activity in Reducing Cardiovascular Risks and Mortality among Ethnic Chinese Adults in Taiwan” describes the role of different types of exercises and their possible implications on CVD and mortality. This paper critiques the selected research paper and offers conclusions that can guide more people to get rid of this disease.
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The extent of the Problem and Disease Burden
CVD remains a major health problem that is capable of causing premature death. In Taiwan, this condition remains one of the leading causes of mortality. According to Hu et al. (2014), minimum efforts have been put in place to help protect lives and transform people’s life experiences. The disease has also been a major source of financial burden. It strains the available medical resources and affects the quality of citizens’ medical outcomes. Some experts have been encouraging people to embrace the idea of physical exercise as one of the best approaches for dealing with CVD and other lifestyle conditions. Unfortunately, proper results are yet to be recorded in different regions across Taiwan.
Location and At-Risk Sub-Groups
From the selected study, the authors indicate all Taiwanese have increased chances of developed CVD. The specific location targeted for this analysis was the entire country. The experts went further to identify specific groups that were at risk of CVD (Hu et al., 2014). Generally, the professionals were keen to focus on the Chinese as the targeted population for the study. They went further to subdivide the intended group into males and females. They went further to identify persons above the age of 40 as the ones who had increased chances of developing CVD and recording negative health experiences.
Study Purpose and Findings
Before completing this study, the authors were aware that CVD was one of the lifestyle conditions affecting many people in different parts of the world, including Taiwan. With this kind of information, the researcher wanted to explore the existing relationship between “occupation physical activity (OPA) and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) with the risk of CVD and mortality” (Hu et al., 2014, p. 604). This approach would make it easier for the analysts to understand the emerging connections and come up with meaningful conclusions to help more people achieve positive health outcomes.
After the analysis, the researchers observed that LTPA was a proper approach for minimizing the chances of developing CVD and subsequent mortality. This was attributable to the sustainable impacts of such exercises in reducing cholesterol levels and improving cardiovascular activities in the body. However, the investigators observed that OPA was associated with increased cases of CVD. The rate was even higher in Chinese men in comparison with women of the same age. This outcome was possible due to the nature of aerobic activities and occupational functions men and women engage in (Hu et al., 2014). High OPA, according to the findings, had the potential to increase men’s chances of developing CVD and dying prematurely.
These findings are meaningful and acceptable since they relate to the data recorded in other studies. The work also tries to identify LTPA as an effective way of dealing with CVD and other lifestyle diseases. This observation explains why different professionals support the use of exercises to deal with some of the conditions affecting men today, such as obesity, stroke, and CVD (Hu et al., 2014). For high OPA, it is agreeable that most of the men will stand for a long time while lifting heavy equipment. These practices strain the cardiovascular system much further, thereby increasing the chances of CVD.
Study Design and Statistical Techniques
The scholars did not design a specific study approach. Instead, they relied on the Chin-Shan Community Cardiovascular Cohort study to get the intended information (Hu et al., 2014). They used a pre-designed questionnaire to gather key data and details from the participants. A control group was also included whereby the members did not engage in some of these targeted activities: OPA and LTPA. The professionals believed that the Baecke questionnaire was a reliable tool that was capable of delivering positive results since it had been applied effectively before. Covariate measurements were also considered during the study to group the participants into different groups. Some of the parameters considered include smoking, marriage, career, body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure statuses. To achieve the intended results, “independent sample t-test and x2 tests were used to compare the mean levels of continuous variables and the prevalence of categorical variables between working and nonworking subjects” (Hu et al., 2014, p. 606). The authors also coded tertiles “with their median values of LTPA and OPA” (Hu et al., 2014, p. 606) to test for linear trends. The researcher went further to interpret and analyze their findings accordingly.
as little as 3 hours
Strength of Association
From the presented findings, it is agreeable that the information is plausible and strong. For instance, the statistical approach made it possible for the researchers to gather timely evidence that resonated with the activities of the participants. The research design was also appropriate depending on the nature of the target study population and the identified parameters. The work indicated that physical exercises were appropriate and had positive impacts on a wide range of cardiovascular activities. However, the researchers were categorized to prove that high OPA was associated with isometric and static activities. These efforts would be characterized by heavy lifting and prolonged standing, thereby reducing the overall time available for recovery. On the other hand, the work showed that LTPA had positive effects since the activities were consistence with acceptable lipid, metabolic, and anthropometric parameters (Hu et al., 2014). From these presentations, it would be agreeable to state that the level of association is high while the findings are strong and acceptable.
Bias and Error
From the presented analysis, I believe that bias and error were not problematic in the process of presenting the intended judgment. This is the case since the authors have explained the findings vividly and described the consistency with past studies. The case of LTPA remains unquestionable since past studies have offered similar observations and conclusions. For OPA, the authors have focused primarily on men since they usually engage in a wide range of physical activities that are deemed strenuous (Hu et al., 2014). Such occupations make it impossible for the cardiovascular systems to complete their process naturally. The reported findings and mortality cases seemed higher for the OPA group. This reality explains why the presented judgment does not suffer any form of bias or significant error.
Study Design: Appropriateness
The researchers relied on the use of an appropriate study design that resonated with the anticipated goals and the nature of the identified study population. Through such a design, the authors were able to gather self-reported information that made it easier for them to come up with relevant ideas and arguments (Hu et al., 2014). The questionnaire was also a good tool for guiding the respondents in the cohort study to provide the intended data. Because of the effectiveness of the study, the professionals were able to offer convincing information that can guide more clinicians and public health workers to transform the lives of more clients.
Strengths and Weaknesses
The presented article presents several strengths that make the information practical and convincing. The first one is that the authors used the best research design to complete the study. The second one is that they relied on acceptable sources for the background information and interpretation of their findings. The third strength is that they identified some of the key limitations and addressed them fully, thereby making it possible for the reader to make the best conclusions (Hu et al., 2014). The identifiable weakness is that the authors failed to categorize OPA since some occupational activities might have positive implications on cardiovascular activities in the body.
The above discussion has identified the specific article as informative since it is completed professionally. The findings are capable of empowering many people to address the challenge of CVD by embracing lifestyle changes that could have positive health implications. Despite the weakness outlined above, the work is meaningful and capable of helping more Chinese in Taiwan to overcome the burden of CVD and other lifestyle conditions.
Hu, G., Chien, K., Hsieh, S., Chen, C., Tsai, W., & Su, T. (2014). Occupational versus leisure time physical activity in reducing cardiovascular risks and mortality among ethnic Chinese adults in Taiwan. Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health, 26(6), 604-613. Web.