The clinical question can be explicitly stated with the help of PICOT format. Thus, for this research, PICOT will be stated as follows: “In elderly patients with chronic diseases (P), does patient education intervention in addition to medication treatments (I), compared with only medication treatments (C), increase their health knowledge and improve their health status (O) in a period of 6 months (T)?” The research will apply an educational intervention to answer this clinical question.
There are some studies dedicated to the problem of patient education and its outcomes. For example, Peter et al. (2015) conducted an investigation of core-measure education with the use of teach-back questions among patients with heart failure. However, not many studies disclose the issue of patient education efficiency among elderly patients with chronic diseases. Thus, an educational intervention aimed specifically at elderly patients will be designed. It will make possible answering the clinical question formulated above.
Type of Study
The research has aims to compare the influence of patient education intervention applied together with medication treatment and only medication treatments on the increase of health knowledge in elderly patients with chronic diseases. Consequently, it needs two groups of participants to answer the clinical question. The purpose of the research predetermines the choice of the study type. Thus, for this research, the experimental design is suitable.
This type of qualitative study presupposes some experiments intervention. Its characteristic features include manipulation (patients will experience education intervention); control (the patients’ outcomes of control and experimental groups will be recorded and analyzed); and randomization (patients will be randomly included in control or experimental groups) (Polit & Beck, 2013). The use of the experimental design of the study allows avoiding “systematic bias in the groups” (Polit & Beck, 2013, p. 226). Quasi-experiment is not suitable for this research since it lacks randomization.
The issue of patient education is complex. Thus, different nursing theories and models can be applied to provide a deeper understanding of the problem. First of all, the theoretical framework for the research can include Self-Care Deficit Theory by Dorothea Orem (Alligood, 2014). Self-care depends on some factors, which include the patient’s age, gender, health condition, family factors, external environmental factors, availability of resources, etc. (Alligood, 2014).
Patient education can be considered one of the resources which empower self-care. The ability of patients to take care of themselves according to the demands of their disease depends on the level of their knowledge of the health problem. It is particularly important for elderly patients with chronic diseases because of their ability to self-care influences the quality of their daily life.
Another theory that can be applied to this research is Bandura’s Self-Efficiency Theory (Alligood, 2014). It can be used to stimulate changes in patient’s health behavior. The same effect is expected from patient education. Patients with chronic diseases are going to become more self-efficient with patient education intervention in addition to medication treatments if compared with only medication treatments.
A nursing model which should be regarded within this research is Trajectory Model developed by Straus and Corbin (Alligood, 2014). It focuses on the chronic diseases and the notion of “trajectory” is used to determine the course of a chronic disease. This trajectory consists of several phases. Each of them needs specific interventions. Patient education can be one of such interventions.
Alligood, M.R. (2014). Nursing theory: Utilization and application (5th ed.). St.Luuis, MS: Elsevier Mosby.
Peter, D., Robinson, P., Jordan, K., Lawrence, S., Casey, K.J., & Salaa-Lopez, D. (2015). Reducing readmissions using teach-back: Enhancing patient and family education. The Journal of Nursing Administration, 45(1), 35-42. Web.
Polit, D.F., & Beck, C.T. (2013). Essentials of nursing research: Appraising evidence for nursing practice (8th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer Health.