Communication models are mainly picture; this is because they can put to an end very essential interactive or transitive process into static picture.
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There are quite a number of communication models. Some of them include:
- Classical communication models.
- Early linear models.
- Non linear models.
In classical communication method, it deals with rhetoric which is a definition of communication which originated from a Greek philosopher (Mortensen, sereno 1970)
Rhetoric basally deals with observation to provide a persuading answer
Aristotle’s model of communication follows a chain of communication method.
So it follows arrangement of:-
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In Aristotle’s model of proof, it deals with Aristotle’s description of proofs which inheres the message, audience and finally the speaker.
So it follows a chain as:-
In Bitzers Rhetorical situation, identifies some classical components of communication situation.
Advantages of Aristotle model.
- It provides both general and particular vantage points.
- It gives space to ask questions and to interpret raw staff of observation.
- It can lead us to new discoveries through following its trend.
- It gives order and coherence of complex events.
- It leads to over simplicity of events.
Early linear models
One of these models is Shannon-weaver mathematical model. This model was invented to give a solution to engineers in finding ways of transmitting electrical signals to other locations. This model connects transmitted and received signals. It followed the following trend.
- It cab be used in low level communication texts.
- It has lead to significant developments.
- Its an approximation of all the processes of human communication
- It has a great heuristic value.
- Its concepts are used in communication research.
- It’s not analogous to various ways of human communication.
- It’s basically formal and does not account for contents.
- This model does not differentiate important ideas from those which are not.
The other method in early linear model is Berlo’s S-M-C-R which is the most influential message centered model. It follows trend of:
- Ideas can be presented flexibly.
- Message stressed transmission of ideas.
- It stresses manipulation to a machine
- It converts human to a machine
- It stress the problems of human communication
- Even with right symbol it can lead to misunderstanding.
Another method in early linear communication is Schranmm’s model of communication.
This transmitted message as follows.
- It provided framework of references
- It availed feedback
- It included context such as message
- It included culture.
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- It’s less linear and accounts only for bilateral communication.
This model depicts communication as a dynamic process. This model presents helical model of communication.
Advantages of helical model:
- It exemplifies earlier points.
- It makes communication continuous, unrepeatable, addictive and accumulative.
Disadvantages of helical model:
- It has too few variables.
- Provides unanswered questions.
Another sub-model of non linear model is Wesley and MacLean’s conceptual model.
It starts with one specific item and as it advances it selects further items for coding which are then transmitted to another person.
- It gives feedback.
- Account for sensory fields.
- It shows non binary interactions.
- It shows different modes of communication.
- This method cannot account for multiple dimension of communication. The other non linear model is Beaker’s mosaic model which links message for more than one social situation (Barnlund, 1968).
Advantages of backers mosaic model.
- It has incredible communication complexity.
- It accounts for variations in exposure to message.
- It helps to conceive interaction between two mosaics.
- It does not account for possible dimensions involved in communication.
Therefore the best model of communication is the early linear model since it has a variety of sub-models which are quite advantageous and reliable.
Mortensen, C.D, Sereno, K. K, (1970), Foundation of Communication Theory, Harper and Row: New York.
Barnlund, D. C, (1968) Interpersonal Communication, Houghton Muffin, Boston.