Conventionally, people have understood more on how animals learn rather than the children. In addition, how children learn is more understood than the way adults learn. Probably, it is because the method of learning was adopted by the practical psychologists whose standards needed the management of variables. In addition, the rules in which animals study are simply controllable than the conditions of the children and those of the children are much easier managed than those conditions that adults use to learn.
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Basically, learning theories are only important to adult learning practicians if they are implemented in order to assist adults in learning (Knowles, Holton & Swanson, 1998, p.30). This paper will compare and contrast the Michael’s principles of effective theory and practice that is important to attend to how adult learners experience learning to Knowles’ principles of effective theory and practice which states ‘involve learners in evaluating their learning’.
Adult learning takes a great responsibility in the environment cells. For one to be in a position to of doing some work in each section of an organization, it needs much to be known and understood for one to perform within the expected goals or cells (Knowles, Holton & Swanson, 1998, p.119).
Knowles principles of effective theory and practice, discusses on the term andragogy, which Knowles presented to the North America. Androgogy refers to the science and art of assisting adults study. This term is based on five suppositions. These five suppositions included; adults are autonomous and can direct themselves. Secondly, adults have gathered several experiences, which are a good resource for studying (Knowles, 2005, p.65). Thirdly, they appreciate learning, which incorporates with the desires and requirements of their day to day lives. In addition, adults are more focused in quick, problem concentrated strategies or methods than in course concentrated ones. Finally, adult learners are more encouraged to study by on intrinsic or one-self drives rather than extrinsic ones (Kaufman, 2003, par. 4).
From an adult learning viewpoint, academic and the place of work instructing can be regarded as dialogue association where by the teachers or instructors are the same as the adult learners. Though a common model of interpersonal advancement happens during the initial, middle and final stages of communication, both the instructor and learner ought to be informed. Therefore, according to Michael’s theory and practice of adult learning, learning should be done on a one-to-one approach (Lieb, 1991, par. 5).
The two theories and principles of learning are different. According to Knowles, adult learners need self motivation, that is, adult students refuse to accept learning when they are see others are forcing ideas or information into them. On the other hand, Michael’s theory and principle shows that adult learners study due to external drives, they accept ideas and information to imposed into them. In addition, according to Knowles, adult learners want to be offered a chance where they can utilize the skills, knowledge and experience they have and implement it in their new studying experience (Robertson, 2005, p.182-185). On the contrary, Michael’s theory and principle shows that adults learners are not offered the opportunity to utilize their past experience and skills in their new studies.
Therefore, since Knowles principles shows that adults are goal oriented meaning that they are eager and willing to study when they face or experience the importance of learning so as to deal with more gratifying things real-life activities or predicaments. These individuals are well equipped and exposed in way they can solve problems on their own. This type of learning exposes the individual to experiences that are related to individual objectives and at the same time evaluation and future life missions (Carusetta & Cranton, 2005, p. 287).
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On the contrary, the approach of adult learning proposed by Michael does not prepare the adults appropriately to handle their problems and they go through their learning by having information imposed into them. However, this approach of Michael’s principles is appropriate since the learner in a better position to ask questions from the instructor directly (Galbraith, 2004, p.45).
Both the principles applied in adult learning are similar in that the adult learners are interested in understanding the relevance of what they are studying in relation to their goals. Moreover, both types of principles show that the adults are serious when it comes to learning and they do not want to waste their time at all. They are mostly interested in learning through practical activities since it helps them to interact with real life circumstances. In addition, practical activities enhance better understanding of something (Chen, Kim, Moon & Merriam, 2008, p. 12-14).
In conclusion, adult learners have special needs that require to be addressed in order to set up an environment that is conducive for them to learn. This is because adults have several roles, which they need to attend to rather than the responsibility of learning. Therefore, these many roles acts as hindrances for the adult learners to fully participate in learning.
Carusetta, E., & Cranton, P. (2005). Nurturing authenticity: A conversation with teachers. Teaching in Higher Education, 10(3), 285–297.
Chen, L., Kim, S., Moon, P., & Merriam, B., (2008). A review and critique of the portrayal of older adult learners in adult education journals, 1980–2006. Adult Education Quarterly, 59(1), 3–21.
Galbraith, M. (Ed.). (2004). Adult learning methods: A guide for effective instruction (3rd Ed.). Malabar, FL: Kreiger Publishing.
Kaufman, M., (2003). Applying educational theory in practice. ABC of learning and teaching in medicine, 326:213-216. Web.
Knowles, S., Holton, F., & Swanson, A., (1998). The adult learner: the definitive classic in adult education and human resource development. Managing Cultural Differences Series. Web.
Knowles, S., Holton, E., & Swanson, R., (2005). The adult learner (6th Ed.). New York, NY: Elsevier Publishing.
Lieb, S., (1991). Adults as learners. Principles of adult learning. Web.
Robertson, D. R. (2005). Generative paradox in learner-centered college teaching. Innovation Higher Education, 29(3), 181–194.