An effective teacher is one who maximizes the achievements of students by working in accordance with an explicit set of principles that have order, coherence and relevance in particular instructional context (Killen, 2006). Teachers use teaching charts in order to look at the target behaviors differently, see behavior more objectively and see gradual improvement easier (Newman & Newman, 2008).
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Charts also provide consistent approach to student management. This article will give a comparison chart on early childhood, middle childhood and adolescence. The article will also give a description on how the information in the charts will be useful in planning a lesson, providing motivation, utilizing effective teaching strategies and determining interests. It will also explain how the chart will help in assessment and individual instructions (Killen, 2006).
|Early childhood||Middle childhood||Adolescence|
|Relevant ages||From birth to 6 years||From six years to twelve years||Eleven to eighteen years|
|Physical characteristics||Special needs||Gain of height of two to three inches a year||Qualitative and quantitative growth|
|Piaget’s stage||Pre-operational stage||Concrete operational||Formal operational|
|Relevant grade levels||Grade 3||Grade 6||Grade 7|
|Example of Physical abilities||Grow rapidly||Steady growth||Rapid growth|
|Source of impact on development||biological||biological||Environmental|
|Characteristics of language and thoughts||Cannot express themselves||Can express themselves||Improved communication skills|
|Erickson’s stages||Develop feelings of autonomy||Offset feelings of inferiority||Stress of physical psychological changes|
|Example of cognitive abilities||Draw, manage toilet needs, scribble and print their names and ride a bicycle||Can have relatively unsupervised life||Self conscious and emotional instability|
|Characteristics of behavior||Jump, yell and shout||Can start schooling||Already in school|
|Example of key social relationships||Attached to the family members||Develop social interactions with the peers||Start getting attracted to the opposite sex|
A good lesson plan should fit within the broader scheme of work and be written in such a way that it is clear. It should show what is intended for the lesson and should be teachable by another teacher (Killen, 2006). The plan should have the aims or learning objectives, teaching and learning activities, timings, assessment and evaluation. A teacher should also be clear on what the students should know, understand and be able to achieve result of the planned lesson being taught. In many lessons it will be possible to share the learning objectives, expected outcomes and criteria for success with the students. In this case, students will be able to take some responsibilities for their learning and will not be entirely reliant on the teacher for guidance and success (Stephens & Crawley, 1994). This comparison chart will help the teacher to plan for the lesson properly helping and him to set the goals which should be achieved at the end of the lesson (Killen, 2006).
A teacher contributes to the students evolving attitude towards a particular subject or activity. An effective teacher should recognize that students vary in their motivational levels (Newman & Newman, 2008). He should also know how to support extrinsic motivation to students who need it. This will help the students to be excited in learning and make them aware of the importance and value of learning. By using the comparison chart, the teacher will help the students to increase academic self concept, interest in the subject area and the desire to learn more about the subject (Killen, 2006). Teachers can promote better learning motivation by capitalizing on the student’s interest and communicate the belief that all students can learn (Newman & Newman, 2008). Teachers should also develop appropriate strategies to focus students on learning rather than performance. Increased learning can take place if teachers provide positive reinforcement for the response the students make. This will often lead to students repeating successful learning responses. Teachers should not use put-downs or phrases that discourage students in their learning (Killen, 2006).
Good teaching method is important because it is through it that a lesson can best be imparted. Use of good teaching aids and new technology are highly productive (Newman & Newman, 2008). Taking ones work seriously, asking intelligent questions regularly and having genuine closeness towards the students will have tremendous effect on ones working style. A good teacher must listen to the student’s problems and should never hurt any student. By the teacher using the comparison charts he will free the students from the need to rely on memorization (Newman & Newman, 2008). They thus become more autonomous and this in turn allows the teacher to devote more attention to being a sensitive source of feedback during the student’s exploration of the subject. This also helps in indicating systematically when changes need to be done and finding the best way to induce them. The teacher’s feedback can be as a slight movement of the hand indicating the information on the chart.
In addition to congruence with curriculum goals, the teacher considers his students strengths and needs, their learning styles or preferred modalities and their interests (Killen, 2006). Students need’s can be determined through formal or informal assessment. Standardized exams can be used to give an indication of which objectives the students did not master (Stephens & Crawley, 1994). The comparison chart will help the teacher to prepare an exam on the topics taught in order to know whether the goals set have been achieved. The effective teacher should understand the importance of ongoing assessment as an instructional tool for the classroom and should use both formal and informal assessment methods (Newman & Newman, 2008).
The teacher should also use formative and summative evaluation methods. The teacher should use formative evaluation during the learning process (Stephens & Crawley, 1994). This will help him to monitor progress in obtaining outcomes. On the other hand, summative evaluation can be used at the end of specific time period or course to represent the student’s performance (Newman & Newman, 2008). Assessment will help to test the student’s ability to recall information and also test specific abilities such as understanding of concepts. Determining how well the students have achieved the topic requires the teacher to match the outcomes with an appropriate assessment strategy (Newman & Newman, 2008). The more clearly the teacher will have stated the instructional objectives and learning outcomes, the more helpful they will be in assisting him to make decisions on how to assess the students. The teacher should select a format for assessing the achievement of each topic objective. The learning outcomes that are associated with the objectives provide the basis for determining how to assess the objectives (Stephens & Crawley, 1994).
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A teacher dealing with small children should be able to look and understand them. The teacher should understand their development in order to be in a position to teach them effectively (Killen, 2006). A teacher should also be pleasant, kind and have a nice personality. He should also be informed and intelligent. In order for a teacher to achieve his teaching goals he should make a plan for the lesson, motivate the students, come up with good teaching strategies and also assessment methods.
Killen, R. (2006). Effective teaching strategies. Chicago. Thomson Learning Nelson.
Newman, B., & Newman, P. (2008). Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach. New York.Cengage Learning.
Stephens, P., & Crawley, T. (1994). Becoming an effective teacher. Chicago. Nelson Thornes.