Concept Analysis: Preoperative Anxiety

According to Rodgers’ approach to concept analysis, this process involves seven stages (Foley & Davis, 2017). The third of these phases involves choosing a suitable realm (sample) of data collection. For the selected concept, the process was realized through the review of the literature. Such professional medical databases as MEDLINE, Cochrane, and PubMed have been explored. The key phrases employed during the search were combinations of the word ‘perioperative’ with such terms as ‘anxiety,’ ‘apprehension.’ ‘nervousness,’ ‘panic,’ ‘suspense,’ ‘restlessness,’ ‘tension,’ and ‘uneasiness.’

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As a result of the initial search, a multitude of articles has been located. Upon performing an in-depth analysis of these sources, several realms of the concept have been identified. In particular, the following samples have been singled out: PA in children, PA in laparoscopic surgery, PA in elderly patients, and PA in autism spectrum disorder patients (Ay, Ulucanlar, Ay, & Ozden, 2014; Fortier & Kain, 2015; Taghizadeh, Davidson, Williams, & Story, 2015; Wang, Dong, & Li, 2014).

Upon a critical appraisal of the literature, the concept of PA became clear, and ambiguities became insignificant. It has been established what PA is, as well as what differences there exist between perioperative and pre- and postoperative anxiety. It has also been found that PA most frequently occurs in such vulnerable populations as children and elderly people. Taking into consideration the findings, the following research question can be suggested:

  • What effects of PA are the most detrimental for patients: physiological, emotional, or mental?
  • What factors are associated with PA first of all?
  • What kinds of psychological reactions to PA are there?
  • How can healthcare professionals reduce the risk of PA in their patients?
  • What type of intervention is more effective for PA: before or after surgery?


Ay, A. A., Ulucanlar, H., Ay, A., & Ozden, M. (2014). Risk factors for perioperative anxiety in laparoscopic surgery. Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons, 18(3), e2014.00159.

Foley, A. S., & Davis, A. H. (2017). A guide to concept analysis. Clinical Nurse Specialist, 31(2), 70-73.

Fortier, M. A., & Kain, Z. N. (2015). Treating perioperative anxiety and pain in children: A tailored and innovative approach. Pediatric Anesthesia, 25(1), 27-35.

Taghizadeh, N., Davidson, A., Williams, K., & Story, D. (2015). Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and its perioperative management. Pediatric Anesthesia, 25(11), 1076-1084.

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Wang, Y., Dong, Y., & Li, Y. (2014). Perioperative psychological and music interventions in elderly patients undergoing spinal anesthesia: Effect on anxiety, heart rate variability, and postoperative pain. Yonsei Medical Journal, 55(4), 1101-1105.

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