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Correlation Between HIV, AIDS and Kaposi Sarcoma

Summary of the Public Health Topic

Kaposi Sarcoma (KS) is a rare type of skin cancer, which has a strong association with HIV, as the causative agent. The condition mainly affects the human skin, mouth, or lymph nodes. In extreme cases, it may affect vital organs, such as the liver (American Cancer Society, 2014). Similarly, some patients suffer gastrointestinal infections from the condition. Although, the rare skin disease is common among HIV victims, a Hungarian Dermatologist (Moritz Kaposi) first observed it in 1872 among a group of patients (National Cancer Institute, 2014). In Europe and North America, the disease mainly affected elderly men. Medical reports showed that its main victims were elderly men of Italian ancestry and Jewish descent (National Cancer Institute, 2014). Other populations that similarly suffered from the disease included young African men, adolescent children, and patients who underwent therapies that suppressed their immune systems (Barnardt, 2013). To differentiate this condition’s incidence among AIDS patients and HIV-free patients, researchers have often used the terms “epidemic KS” and “KS” to distinguish the effects of the disease on its victims (National Cancer Institute, 2014). “Epidemic KS” refers to its association with AIDS victims, while “KS” refers to its incidence among “classic” populations.

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Based on the above intrigues, correctly, medical researchers say HIV and AIDS increased the incidence of KS in the world population (Khammissa, Pantanowitz, & Feller, 2012). Researchers first made this discovery in 1981 when its incidence among homosexual and bisexual men increased. For example, the National Cancer Institute (2014) says 95% of all Kaposi Sarcoma cases in North America occurred among gay men. Similar statistics show that more than 25% of this population developed complications from Kaposi Sarcoma in their lifetimes. Based on these statistics, experts have since confirmed that HIV and AIDS indirectly contribute to the development of the rare skin condition (Venkataraman et al., 2013). The American Cancer Society (2014) says that the immunologic deficiency of AIDS victims often predisposes them to opportunistic infections and unusual neoplasms (including Kaposi Sarcoma) which emerge because of suppressed immunity. Based on the causative correlation between HIV/AIDS and Kaposi Sarcoma, this paper presents the details about a Biostatistics project that investigates the correlation between both variables. Kaposi Sarcoma is the independent variable and HIV infection is the dependent variable.

Statement of the Problem

Unlike other types of cancers, Kaposi Sarcoma does not occur in one part of the body and spread to another; instead, it can manifest in many parts of the body at the same time. Before the distribution of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs), the incidence of KS was highest among people who suffered from AIDS. However, research has shown that ARVs have reduced its incidence among AIDS patients. For example, the American Cancer Society (2014) says AIDS patients who have a CD4 count of more than 250 could not easily suffer from advanced forms of KS. This development could have an impact on the traditional association of KS and AIDS. This uncertainty further stems from findings by Crosetti & Succo (2013), which show that gender and lifestyle changes, could also affect people’s predisposition to KS. Based on these dynamics, the research question for this paper appears below.

Research Question

What is the nature of the relation between HIV and Kaposi Sarcoma?

Annotated Bibliography

Research Sources

Barnardt, P. (2013). Managing AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma and pregnancy. S Afr J HIV Med, 14(2), 87-88. 

The author sought to investigate the complications associated with advanced Kaposi Sarcoma among pregnant women in Sub-Saharan Africa. In the same regard, he sought to understand how health care practitioners could solve this challenge without being unethical. Here, the author established that health care service providers need a multidisciplinary team to solve these challenges. The research used a case study research design, which investigated the case of one pregnant South African mother who suffered from advanced Kaposi Sarcoma and HIV. The greatest weakness of this paper was its reliance on one case. Therefore, it is difficult to prove the reliability of the findings across other pregnant mothers, or patients with different demographics, from the ones sampled by the researcher.

Khammissa, R., Pantanowitz, L., & Feller, L. (2012). Oral HIV-Associated Kaposi Sarcoma: A Clinical Study from the Ga-Rankuwa Area, South Africa, AIDS Research and Treatment, 2012(873171), 1-9.

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The authors of this article sought to understand the characteristics of epidemic KS by studying South African patients. Their sample size consisted of HIV patients in the African nation. The patients had received oral treatments of KS in a six-year period (2006-2010). To undertake the study, the researchers carried out a retrospective study that confirmed KS diagnosis by an oral pathologist. The researchers also confirmed the HIV status of the respondents through an enzyme-linked immunosorbent

Assay. The researchers also used statistical techniques to analyze the data. The findings of the study showed that most Kaposi Sarcoma cases presented themselves in the patient’s mouth. Although the authors investigated gender differences in their study, they found out that the differences were insignificant to their findings.

Venkataraman, G., Uldrick, T., Aleman, K., Mahony, D., Karcher, D., Steinberg, S., & Raffeld, M. (2013). Bone Marrow Findings in HIV-Positive Patients With Kaposi Sarcoma Herpesvirus–Associated Multicentric Castleman Disease. American Journal of Clinical Pathology, 139(1), 651-661. 

This document aimed to evaluate the presence of Kaposi Sarcoma among HIV-infected patients by doing a bone marrow biopsy of a group of patients. The authors took a specimen of bone marrow from patients who suffered from Kaposi Sarcoma. The researchers only considered tests that evaluated blood cells as clinical. The examination also tested blood count and viral load through histology examinations. The findings showed that the clinical features of Kaposi sarcoma were true. Therefore, the paper established that HIV patients need a Kaposi sarcoma evaluation to prevent them from suffering its advanced effects.

Crosetti, E., & Succo, G. (2013). Non-human immunodeficiency virus-related Kaposi’s sarcoma of the oropharynx: a case report and review of the literature. Journal of Medical Case Reports, 7(293), 16-23.

The authors sought to understand the nature of the relationship between Kaposi Sarcoma and HIV negative people. To come up with their findings, the authors used a case study design, which evaluated the case of a 48-year-old Caucasian man who presented signs of Kaposi Sarcoma (case study design). The subject was also HIV-free, but suffered from cytomegalovirus. Overall, the researchers found that there are rare cases of Kaposi Sarcoma, which are unrelated to HIV. Since this paper used a case study research design, its main weakness was the failure to generalize the findings.

Non-Research Sources American Cancer Society. (2014). Kaposi Sarcoma. Web.

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This article explains what Kaposi Sarcoma entails. It also explains the epistemology of the disease, its different types, and its relation to HIV. This paper uses the article to understand the rare disease and its occurrence across different demographics. For example, through the different types of the disease, the author explained how it manifests in Africa, the Mediterranean, and among HIV-positive people. The greatest strength of the article is its high credibility and validity. This is true because a credible organization (American Cancer Society, 2014) reviewed its findings.

National Cancer Institute. (2014). Kaposi Sarcoma Treatment. Web.

The author of this article focused on exploring the treatment options for Kaposi Sarcoma. However, to do so, it provided general information about the condition, including what treatment options are available for different types of the disease (classic Kaposi Sarcoma, African Kaposi Sarcoma and the likes) and how to manage them. Lastly, the author shows the correlation between the disease and HIV infections. The greatest strength of the article is its validity and reliability. Stated differently, its findings have a strong validity and reliability.

References

American Cancer Society. (2014). Kaposi Sarcoma. Web.

Barnardt, P. (2013). Managing AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma and pregnancy. S Afr J HIV Med, 14(2), 87-88.

Crosetti, E., & Succo, G. (2013). Non-human immunodeficiency virus-related Kaposi’s sarcoma of the oropharynx: a case report and review of the literature. Journal of Medical Case Reports, 7(293), 16-23.

Khammissa, R., Pantanowitz, L., & Feller, L. (2012). Oral HIV-Associated Kaposi Sarcoma: A Clinical Study from the Ga-Rankuwa Area, South Africa. AIDS Research and Treatment, 2012(873171), 1-9.

Krown, S., Borok, M., Campbell, T., Casper, C., Dittmer, D., Mitsuyasu, R., & Orem, J. (2014). Stage-Stratified Approach to AIDS-Related Kaposi’s Sarcoma: Implications for Resource-Limited Environments. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 32(23), 2512-2513.

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National Cancer Institute. (2014). Kaposi Sarcoma Treatment. Web.

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StudyCorgi. (2022, June 8). Correlation Between HIV, AIDS and Kaposi Sarcoma. Retrieved from https://studycorgi.com/correlation-between-hiv-aids-and-kaposi-sarcoma/

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StudyCorgi. (2022, June 8). Correlation Between HIV, AIDS and Kaposi Sarcoma. https://studycorgi.com/correlation-between-hiv-aids-and-kaposi-sarcoma/

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StudyCorgi. "Correlation Between HIV, AIDS and Kaposi Sarcoma." June 8, 2022. https://studycorgi.com/correlation-between-hiv-aids-and-kaposi-sarcoma/.

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StudyCorgi. 2022. "Correlation Between HIV, AIDS and Kaposi Sarcoma." June 8, 2022. https://studycorgi.com/correlation-between-hiv-aids-and-kaposi-sarcoma/.

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StudyCorgi. (2022) 'Correlation Between HIV, AIDS and Kaposi Sarcoma'. 8 June.

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