Gender Ratio Problem
This problem describes one of the phenomena often observed in society regarding the number of crimes committed by people. As statistics show, there are significant gender differences since men commit much more crimes than women. This statement is true for almost any society and all types of criminal activity, except for prostitution (“Gender and crime,” n.d.). With the development of criminology and social studies, it became necessary to explain this phenomenon. At the moment, the traditional perspective is considered to be related to society’s culture, which creates a suitable environment for the commission of crimes by men.
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This approach is not the only one and does not explain the relationship between culture, environment, and crime in detail. For the most part, claims related to the traditional explanation lack modern research and evidence that would allow this theory to be considered in more detail (Schmalleger, 2015). Due to this, there are other approaches to studying this problem, including within the framework of biosocial criminology. However, from this scientific perspective, this phenomenon is not a problem at all. Proponents of biosocial criminology see society only as an additional factor that enhances the impact of other elements, such as antisocial genes. Therefore, the problem of the difference in the number of crimes by men and women can be solved through the assertion that the cause of this is the very gender of the person. Thus, there is no need to form claims against society and radically reform it since the initial factors that incline people to crime lie within them.
Biological and Genetic Factors
Many modern theories, including biosocial criminology, are beginning to consider various processes occurring inside the body as factors contributing to the commission of crimes. In this context, genetic and biological factors are most often assumed, which are a combination of various functions of the human body. Experts are investigating possible hereditary traits, changes in brain structure, and levels of various hormones (Schmalleger, 2015). Since there was practically no information on these factors in the context of criminology until recently, they were not taken into account in the process of criminal justice. However, the growing body of research and the connections being made require attention and consideration in the context of the entire judiciary.
At the moment, the process of determining the commission of a crime in most cases is based strictly on existing laws and human behavior, which either fits into the established framework or does not. The internal state is taken into account only in extreme cases: for example, when an individual commits a crime and is in an inadequate state of health. In such cases, most often, the sentence is mitigated since circumstances beyond the defendant’s control are considered. However, such cases have been relatively rare until now, and sufficient grounds were required to describe the person’s condition for the court decision to be changed. An expanding knowledge base regarding biological and genetic factors may influence this situation, as more available connections may lead to more frequent references to them.
Theoretically, this can lead to a situation where many crimes will be explained by certain deviations in the human condition: the presence of criminals in the family or varying hormone levels. However, a normal social environment is still one of the main factors influencing the development of personality, brain, and bodily functions (Ling et al., 2019). Moreover, even in the presence of any additional factors, if the person is deemed sane, they are still responsible for their actions. At the moment, further research is required within the framework of biosocial criminology, which will determine the degree of influence of elements of genetics and biology and to what extent they shape the individual’s actions. Accordingly, while the influence of these areas on criminal justice will increase as the knowledge base grows, without additional evidence, the system cannot be changed to take into account such physical traits.
Gender and crime. (n.d.). Law Library. Web.
Ling, S., Umbach, R., & Raine, A. (2019). Biological explanations of criminal behavior. Psychology, Crime & Law, 25(6), 626-640. Web.
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Schmalleger, F. (2015). Criminology today: An integrative introduction (7th ed.). Pearson.