Obesity is one of the most discussed health problems all over the world. The progress of obesity in the United States is closely associated with the population’s lifestyle and dietary habits. Effective diets and products which can reduce the obesity rates are actively discussed in the scientific world and in the nursing community.
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From this point, the experience of the US and European researchers in studying the problem is important to be referred to. In 2013, the Swedish researchers Holmberg and Thelin published the results of their study in the article “High Dairy Fat Intake Related to Less Central Obesity: A Male Cohort Study with 12 Years’ Follow-Up”. In this article, the researchers chose to focus on the aspects of the male obesity, and they studied the connection between the regular intake of the dairy products and changes in the male obesity index.
Holmberg and Thelin focused on answering the question about the impact of the dairy fat intake on the development of the central obesity (Holmberg & Thelin, 2013, p. 89). The researchers’ hypothesis was based on the idea that there was a reasonable connection between the dairy fat intake and obesity. Thus, focusing on the male cohort study and on the results of two surveys, the researchers conclude that the high intake of dairy fat can lead to lower rates of central obesity when the low dairy fat intake can lead to significant rates of central obesity.
In their research article, Holmberg and Thelin do not provide the complete literature review as the separate section of the article. The important background information used to develop and support the hypothesis is presented and analysed in the introductory part of the article. Thus, to discuss the effectiveness of the cohort studies, Holmberg and Thelin refer to the article written by Siri-Tarino and the group of researchers (Siri-Tarino, Sun, Hu, & Krauss, 2010, p. 535).
More attention is paid to the discussion of the association between the use of dairy products and obesity, and Holmberg and Thelin build their assumptions referring to the studies conducted in 2002 and 2005 (Lawlor, Ebrahim, Timpson, & Davey Smith, 2005, p. 808; Pereira et al., 2002, p. 2081). From this perspective, the researchers provide only the theoretical framework for the study details instead of presenting the complete literature review.
The research of 2013 can be discussed as current and relevant in relation to the modern health issues. In spite of the fact that the studies related to the research are characterised by the break in 12 years, the results of the research are important because there are still active discussions of the diets and products effective to cope with obesity (Holmberg & Thelin, 2013, p. 89).
Obesity is considered to be the main contemporary cause of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in the USA and Europe (Elwood, Pickering, Givens, & Gallacher, 2010, p. 925). That is why, the focus on the role of dietary products for affecting the central obesity should be discussed in detail.
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In order to state the correlation between the use of the dairy products and central obesity, Holmberg and Thelin use the well-developed non-experimental or observational cohort study. The used cohort study can be also discussed as prospective and population-based. In order to answer the main research questions, the researchers chose to conduct the cohort study based on completing two surveys which are 12 years apart (Holmberg & Thelin, 2013, p. 90). The results of the observation are effectively analysed with the help of standardised statistical tools to provide the objective and bias-free results.
The results of the research are significantly based on the selected sample. In order to address the specifics of the cohort study and learn the aspects of developing the central obesity, Holmberg and Thelin chose to invite 2350 men to participate in the study. 76% of the invited males participated in the first survey. 1589 men participated in the follow-up survey.
The age of the men was between 40 years and 60 years. The invited men were the Swedish farmers and non-farmers who consumed the high fat and low fat dairy products as the part of their daily diet (Holmberg & Thelin, 2013, p. 90). The sample was selected to address the purpose of the research effectively, and it can be discussed as appropriate for the study because the selection of male middle-aged participants responded to the criteria of the cohort study.
The discussed research can be considered as rather practical because the results of the research can be actively applied to treating obesity and to developing the effective diets in order to cope with the overweight. There is the assumption that high fat dairy products contribute to obesity, but the research results support the idea that dairy products should be highly fat and nutritional in order to be discussed as healthy.
Thus, while discussing the application of the results, the researchers state that the dairy consumption is the necessary aspect of the effective diet (Holmberg & Thelin, 2013, p. 91). In addition, the proposed results can be actively used by nutritionists in cases when middle-aged males suffer from the central obesity. The strength of the research is in the fact that the large sample is used, and the results can be generalised in order to be used in different cases.
While discussing the perspectives for the study’s improvement, it is important to note that the study is characterised by many strengths because it is based on the large sample, and it describes the results in relation to two health surveys conducted with the break in 12 years. Furthermore, the results of the research are analysed with the help of the effective statistical methods (Holmberg & Thelin, 2013, p. 91).
The standard methods and techniques are used to measure the important anthropometrics. The study can be discussed as effective while evaluating the research design and methods because the selected observational design is appropriate to develop the specific cohort-study. However, some improvements can be added to the structure of the article presenting the research results because the literature review section can be discussed as missing in the article.
The writing in relation to the analysed article can be discussed as clear because all the research parts are presented in a logical and rather concise manner. Much attention is paid to discussing the methods of the research and to the discussion part of the article. The results are organised in tables in order to present the evidence in the most effective manner. From this point, the article is considered to meet the academic and scientific criteria.
In spite of the fact that the research is based on the long-term study, the further research is possible to be conducted with references to studying the other types of obesity and while focusing on the female participants. Thus, the results presented in the research provoke the further discussion of the topic because the results violate the traditional vision of the high fat dairy products as contributing to the obesity development (Lawlor et al., 2005, p. 808; Pereira et al., 2002, p. 2081). Discussing the role of the research for the nurses’ practice, it is possible to initiate the development of the additional survey necessary to study the problem in relation to the wider and more diverse sample.
While evaluating the research presented in Holmberg and Thelin’s article and titled as “High Dairy Fat Intake Related to Less Central Obesity: A Male Cohort Study with 12 Years’ Follow-Up”, it is important to note that the authors provided the important findings associated with the correlation between the dairy products consumption and obesity. The problem is in the fact that the consumption of the high fat dairy products was traditionally discussed as one of the causes affecting obesity in adults.
However, the research results provided by the Swedish investigators should be taken into consideration because they are based on the large cohort study. These results support the assumptions made by the US and European researchers previously. Thus, the research evidence can be applied to the nursing environments while discussing the opportunities for treating obesity as one of the main health problems in the world. The results of the research are important to affect the diets used to prevent or treat obesity in the community.
Elwood, P., Pickering, J., Givens, D., & Gallacher, J. (2010). The consumption of milk and dairy foods and the incidence of vascular disease and diabetes: An overview of the evidence. Lipids, 45(2), 925-939.
Holmberg, S., & Thelin, A. (2013). High dairy fat intake related to less central obesity: A male cohort study with 12 years’ follow-up. Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, 31(2), 89-94.
Lawlor, D., Ebrahim, S., Timpson, N., & Davey Smith, G. (2005). Avoiding milk is associated with a reduced risk of insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome: Findings from the British Women’s Heart and Health Study. Diabetic Medicine, 22(1), 808–811.
Pereira, M., Jacobs, D., Van Horn, L., Slattery, M., Kartashov, A., & Ludwig, D. (2002). Dairy consumption, obesity, and the insulin resistance syndrome in young adults: The CARDIA Study. JAMA, 287(2), 2081–2089.
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Siri-Tarino, P. W., Sun, Q., Hu, F., & Krauss, R. (2010). Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies evaluating the association of saturated fat with cardiovascular disease. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 91(1), 535-546.