The Capture 20110630 (2011) video demonstrates a learning lesson whereby a teacher is instructing students how to prepare hamburger. He begins by highlighting that making hamburger is a quite a demanding task since there are several factors that have to be considered. For instance, the choice of hamburger type to be made depends on personal preference. In his submission, the teacher directs students to assume that the hamburger is intended for individual consumption.
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The first step involves making a choice on the type of minced meat, bread and corn bun to be used. He offers various choices such as using beef, turkey or any other suitable combination. However, he cautions that while selecting the type of meat to use, one should consider fat content. Hence, he recommends 80/20 limit, since it makes the hamburger produce the right kind of juice. Secondly, the cook is also supposed to make a decision on the type of corn bun to use. He provides suggests standard plain, wheat, sesame seeds or potatoes.
For the purpose of this video, he opts for sesame seed and beef hamburger. Having chosen preferred ingredients, meat is properly cooked in readiness for the next step which involves rolling the meat into balls that are between 6-8 inches in diameter depending on desired size. The available spices are then added onto the meat and cooked together using preferred cooking method such as steam boiling or roasting in the grill. He advices students to opt for grilled meat which should be done at temperatures between of 165-170 degrees. Concurrently, the bun is hit on the pan for 2 to 3 minutes for each side. He warns against pressing the bun down to avoid drying it. When the bun is ready, the cook should add preferred type of cheese. Likewise, when the meat gets ready, it is put at the centre of the burn together with any other desired dressing. To ease the eating process, he instructs students to use toothpick to hold the buns together.
From the Capture 20110630 (2011) video, elements of social learning theory have been explicitly demonstrated. The theory by Albert Bandura asserts that children learn through observation (Ormrod, 2011). The fundamental principle of observational learning is rooted in three basic models. Ormrod (2011) explains that the first model is commonly known as verbal model. This model is demonstrated when a more knowledgeable individual or instructor explains some form of behavior for students in course of learning. In order to develop better understanding, the instructor should provide vivid descriptions and offer detailed explanation of the behavior in question (Ormrod, 2011). In general, the video is about hamburger recipe. The teacher demonstrates via speech and by use of hand gestures the process of making a hamburger right from selection of ingredients to the final part when the person gets to enjoy the finished product. As the verbal model recommends, the instructor uses vivid description and detailed explanations. He begins by supplying information on the type of meat and bun options that are available to the learner for making a hamburger. He also explains that a bun should not be pressed down during toasting, and he creates the image of how dry the bun would be if such an act was committed. Towards the end, he vividly describes the mess that would be evident if one applied cheese prior to heating the bun.
To begin with, the lesson can be redesigned through the same social cognitive theory but using a different approach. Under the same observational concept, Ormrod (2011) explains that live model can be used to enhance observational learning. Under this model, the instructor acts out a concept to promote actual demonstration of the behavior. Similar to what is done during cooking programs on television, the teacher can take students through the actual hamburger cooking process to promote understanding. He can allow his students in a real kitchen setting and watch as he prepares hamburger. Alternatively, the teacher could use a recorded cooking video to explain this concept. The aforementioned method is also an element of social cognitive theory under the observational concept known as symbolic model. Ormrod (2011) observes that in symbolic model, a teacher demonstrates behavior through real or fictional characters using films, books or online media.
Social cognitive theory relies heavily on modeling process to instill a particular behavior among learners. Ormrod (2011) is of the opinion that learning should be a social process where learners interact with the model in gaining understanding of particular concept. For modeling to be successful, several steps have been identified some of which will be employed to redesign the lesson in Capture 20110630 (2011) video. To begin, with attention is an essential aspect if a teacher wants to promote observational learning. The teaching method demonstrated in the video does not capture attention and there is a likelihood that learners will get bored and distracted. It is against this reason that the teacher should use either actual demonstration explained above, or actively involve learners through question-answer session.
Similarly, social learning theory can be effectively applied to redesign the lesson. Ormrod (2011) elaborates that social leaning theory by Leo Vygotsky saw learning as a social process, where learners acquire learning via active interaction with knowledgeable persons. The learners look up on the knowledgeable individual as a role model from whom he/she acquires thoughts and behavior. The intended behavior can be transferred to the learners via a cultural specific tool of socio-cultural theory known as collaborative learning. The teacher in the video can make the students form groups, where they discuss their understanding of the hamburger recipe. Ormrod (2011) exemplifies that collaborative learning is achieved when peers come together in a group and through mutual understanding work together towards acquiring a specific skill.
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Additionally, the application of collaborative learning method can be used to test retention of the learned concept. After successful discussion, the teacher can ask questions on the learned behavior to test whether the learners have understood the concept. The above strategy can be combined with social cognitive theory concept of motivation. According to Ormrod (2011) motivation can be effectively used to promote imitation which is an element of observational learning. During the question-answer session, the teacher can use motivational words like ‘good, well done, good attempt’ to reinforce motivation. Ormrod (2011) further explains that motivators are highly effective in promoting imitation which in turn creates self-regulated learners.
To recap it all, the Capture 20110630 (2011) uses verbal model under social cognitive theory to promote observational learning. However, the video could benefit from live and symbolic model elements of observational learning if it were to be more effective as a learning tool. In addition, the instructor could modify the lesson into a socially interactive process to promote collaborative learning as exemplified in socio-cultural theory.
Capture 20110630 (2011). Web.
Ormrod, J. E. (2011). Educational Psychology: Developing Learners (7th edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.