The Need for Lesson Planning and Teaching

Class profile

Institution: Private English School in Iran

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Type of course: The course is intended for students who are yet to join higher learning institutions abroad, as well as those who want to pursue their careers in America.

Course duration: 9:30 – 11:00 a.m., three times a week.

Group: Ten mixed-gender Iranian students

First language: Iranian

Occupation: Students

Proficiency level: college

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Age of the students: Between the ages of 15 – 22 years. The reason is that majority of the students have completed their English language courses at elementary and intermediate levels and are about to join higher learning institutions.

Previous language learning experience: The students have been exposed to a beginner in their elementary levels as a second language and they will now have an opportunity to be exposed to a more interactive language lesson.

Reasons for learning: The lesson plan is intended to prepare students to learn English as a second language and the focus is on the types of language skills and functions they would need in academic and everyday life. It is also planned to prepare some students for their final exams, whereas others are prepared for their general use in their everyday lives. Most importantly, the plan is geared towards helping those intending to migrate to the USA to learn English. Thus, the English language will be helpful to the students as they pursue their careers and other prospects in life.

Attitudes to learning: The students are enthusiastic about the lesson and their expectations are high since this is a new language that is not widely spoken in their respective native country. Besides, they will always use the language in their everyday lives. The class is voluntary and, hence, it is considered to be self-motivating.

Preferred learning styles: Mixed styles.

General Interests: Reading storybooks, skating, computer games, and sports.

Resources: Vocabulary/word list (appendix 3), smart board, English-English dictionary, Flashcards, CD rom (see Appendix 4 & 5).

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Description of the lesson

Aim of the lesson

  • The lesson specifically focuses on listening skills and pronunciation of the words as they are used in American English pronunciation. In most cases, the lesson will focus on the ability of the students to listen to the words and be able to emulate the words. The words provided will be the same but pronounced differently in diverse situations and more focus will be on the tone variations. Examples of such words include alternate, affect, appropriate, and attribute. See Appendix 3 for clarity and meaning.
  • To help the students develop listening skills such as processing sound and deriving meanings of words, gestures, facial expressions, and body language from the dialogue.
  • To help students acquire new words or vocabulary that often seem confused when used in different situations, for example, the word fair.
  • To identify wording that is homonymous yet commonly used in everyday language, for instance, air, heir; Bard, barred.

Subsidiary aims

  • To provide learners with an opportunity to practice listening and extract the right pronunciation of various words. This is very important in the recognition of sound stress, rhythm, and intonation.
  • Make learners learn various forms of sounds as depicted by different words.
  • The lesson will help students to listen to the general understanding of everyday spoken language.
  • The lesson is also geared towards helping students listen to extracted information from the dialogue.
  • Listening will help students deduce meaning from words and sounds.
  • Students’ listening to deduce is considered critical in gaining more meaning from emerging opinions.
  • To give learners the opportunities to express their feelings freely about the migration to USA topic or going abroad to study.
  • To take on learners for active participation in the topic: This will involve playing around with the vocabulary as developed in the word game. It could be useful for quicker mastery of the language, in addition to allowing those who cannot easily comprehend the language to do so. Furthermore, it will allow standardization of the learning process. All the students will be allowed to learn the language uniformly without others being left behind. For instance, in a class, since students tend to have different capabilities, slow learners will be encouraged to cope with the rest of the class. If necessary, slow learning students will be given home assignments to help catch up.

Personal aims

  • To actively engage learners to participate in the learning process: In a class where time is short, some learners may not have a chance to participate actively in the learning process due to personal characteristics. Thus, these students must be given a chance to catch up with the rest through elicitation techniques and role play.
  • To motivate and equally build the student confidence and focus both in and outside the classroom through creating a relaxed, conducive, and non-threatening environment during lessons. This will be achieved via the formation of class groups where each student’s involvement will be highly encouraged by role-playing and any ensuing mistakes or verbal errors will be corrected with the aid of class members and the teacher.

Teaching objectives

  • To impart new vocabulary knowledge, especially the vocabulary that is homonymous, as well as those that had different meanings in different situations.
  • To develop listening skills and pronunciation of new words that would enable learners to enhance their knowledge of the new English language, mainly from the American perspective.
  • To facilitate pair or group work activities to enhance participation and interactions amongst the students.

Learning results of the course

By the end of the lesson, students are anticipated to:

  • Know how to organize the incoming speech into meaningful sentences through learning listening skills.
  • Be able to recognize and use homonymous words.
  • Be able to use the vocabulary taught in the class.
  • Through listening skills, the students would be able to anticipate the speaker’s spoken words and meaning as well as confirming expectations.
  • Be able to communicate effectively as a result of listening and vocabulary lessons.
  • Be able to acquire a mass of vocabulary that they will be able to recall and use at will.
  • Have practiced the language listening skills and pronunciation, especially those words that the students have learned and are non-existent in the native language, particularly those that seem to sound the same but have different meanings such as witch and which; horse and hoarse, morning and mourning; sort and sought. The teacher will show how they are pronounced, based on their respective tone variation.

Assumptions about the timetable

  • The lesson will be divided into two stages. The first session of the lesson will deal with the introduction of the lesson, stating the expectations, the objectives of the lesson, and, finally, the way forward. The second part of the first session will involve the introduction of the vocabulary present in the context, the pronunciation, as well as preparing the students for the listening activity. The vocabulary related to the important features in the USA such as the valleys, national parks, forests, and cities.
  • The first part of the second period will be based on reading and listening activities. The teacher will go through the context together with the students, with the target vocabulary listed. The teacher will then elaborate on the use and applicability of the underlined vocabulary. The second part will encompass listening and pronunciation. The teacher will then play a song while the students listen. This will be repeated; then, one of the students will be asked to repeat the song aloud. The other listening activities will involve playing the CD rom with songs and conversations. The students will then be asked about particular words and phrases as used in the conversation.
  • During these class activities, students will be capable of learning various forms of vocabulary and their meanings, as applicable in different language areas. The activities will further expose learners to the various grammatical applications and they will equally practice some aspects of the language skills, namely, pronunciation, reading, and listening.

Predicted problems

  • The students are expected to begin the lesson by learning a few similar words and then read them aloud. The teacher ensures that the students understand the meaning of each word, their similarities, and how they are applied in the language before asking some students to read the words and to make simple sentences using the words. In most cases, the students will find it embarrassing with the pronunciation of the words and the sentence formation, especially the slow learners. This is so since it is not their native language. Given that differences in the alphabetical script are anticipated, students will find it difficult to read the language aloud. Nevertheless, the activity will be important in the language learning process. For example, the students would learn how to pronounce the words by identifying the mistake, whilst corrections will be done on the spot so that everyone can notice.
  • Learners will ideally be encouraged to use the newly learned vocabulary in addition to the phrases and, as a result, they will be asked to use the learned vocabulary frequently as a form of practice. In class, students will be asked to construct sentences using the vocabulary. The vocabulary so far learned will also be used to form part of the interactive language session in class. However, many students are alleged to become confused in the use of some related words or find it rather difficult to use the words during their first exposure to the language lesson.
  • The problem further expected appertains to the numbers of words the students are capable of learning and, similarly, putting them to use. Due to limited time, the students will not be able to learn other appropriate applications such as word classes, families, and word formation.
Aim Interaction Stage/Activity
Teacher
Stage/Activity
Student
Time
To prepare the students for the lesson

To draw attention to the expectations of the lesson

To introduce the topic of the study

To provide highlights of new words to be studied

T-S

T-S

T-S

T-S

The teacher read out an overview of the lesson to students,

The teacher read out lesson expectations, the general lesson guideline, and what the lesson is about.

The teacher introduces the topic by reading and explaining a few items to be studied, especially those that are related to the new words and listening skills.

The teacher provides the students with flashcards that contain the vocabulary that appears in the word list (see appendix 3A).

The students are listening as the teacher read out the lesson overview

The students listen as the readout the lesson expectation

The students listen as the readout the lesson expectation

The students read the words in the flashcards.

1 min

2 min

2 min

1 min

To be detailed on the new words

To ensure an increase in the pronunciation skills

To ensure that the students are conversant with the words
To find out if the students can remember the newly learned words

This will ensure that the student remembers the words and their meanings.

T-S

T-S S-T

T-S

T-S-T

S-T

The teacher provides flashcards to the students with a list of words or the vocabulary that are heteronyms

The teacher reads the words in the flashcards as the students repeat. This task will be repeated three times.

The teacher then explains the meaning of each word by using L1.

The teacher takes away the flashcards and rereads the words.

The words and their meaning are then shown on the smartboard for easier reference by the students

The learners read through and think about the listed words

The students are a respond to the teacher by repeating the words as read

Students listen for the teacher explanations

The students listen to the teacher and try to predict the meaning of the words.

Students check their predictions

2 mins

3 mins

3 min

3 min

3 min

To introduce the listening activity

To encourage the listening activity group work

To help students develop listening as well as the pronunciation skills

To ensure the students have learned the pronunciation and listening skills.
To ensure that the words are properly pronounced and understood

T-S

T-S-S

S-S

T-S

T-S

The teacher plays a CD (see appendix 4) that contains a conversation between two people who talk about US lifestyles. A replay of the CD will be done

The teacher will next divide the students into two groups. One group will represent one person in the conversation and the other group representing another person.
The teacher will thereafter play the CD and then pause it to allow one group to repeat out loud what the person says. This will be done to the groups until the conversation ends.

The teacher monitors the students by identifying their mistakes and records the mistakes on the board.

Where the mistakes are in the vocabulary, the teacher writes the phonetics of the words on the board and thereafter read while the students repeat.

The students listen to the conversation carefully.

The students work as a group

The students work as a group

The students work as a group

The studenSts respond as required

5 min

2 min

2 min

2 min

3 min

To increases the familiarity with different words

To bring out sound variation while using the words in conversation

To increase the pronunciation capability of the words.

To further cement the already learned listening and pronunciation skills

To ensure the students do not miss any word

To increase familiarity of the newly learned words

For the students to be more interactive in class

To find out if the students remember the meaning of the words

To increase the familiarity with the words.
To conclude the lesson

To clarify any pending issue

T-S

T-S

T-S

T-S

T-S

T-S S-S

T-S

T-S S-S

T-S S-S

T-S

T-S

The teacher writes and reads on the smartboard a list of words that have similar sounds but pronounced differently as shown in the appendix 3 B.

The teacher rereads the words emphasizing the sound difference, stresses, and intonation while the students repeat after her.

The teacher explains the meanings of the words to further bring out the pronunciation.

The teacher will finally play a CD containing a song about what has been learned (see the America song in the appendix5). The song displays different kinds of tone variations in the use of words depending on different situations.

The teacher will stop the song and then repeat it whenever a word with a pronunciation problem arises.

The teacher introduces the word game by providing practical examples
The teacher divides the class into three groups

The teacher reads out the meaning of a particular word for the representative and the group to find the word in the puzzle on the smartboard
The teacher check out if the word is correct then award a point
The teacher provides a summary of what has been learned and asks if there is any question or pending issue.

The teacher explains all the questions asked and clarifies anything that was not understood

The students repeat as the teacher reads

Students imitate the teacher.

Work as a whole class.

The students will be asked to repeat the song after the tape.

The students repeat the word as pronounced until they get the word correct.

Students participate in the practice

Students produce the group representative.

Group representative and the group members are given 30 seconds to find the word in the puzzle

The rest of the groups also check with the teacher
The students listen and check with the teacher. Asks questions

The students listen to the teacher

3 min

2 min

3 min

4 min

4 min

2 min

1 min

2 min

1 min

2 min

2 min

Commentary

Introduction

Taking learners through the English lesson is a rather difficult undertaking as it entails various processes such as carrying out class warm-up, looking for uncovered topics, making the points put forward clear, and ensuring that the students understand what is being taught. Therefore, there is a need for the high organization on the teachers’ side (Wolfe 2006: 57). In developing the English language lesson, greater consideration should be given to numerous factors that include the level of students, what the students want or need, the student concerns, techniques used in the learning process, and finally, the environment where the learning process takes place (Carey and Dick 1990: 264). Planning for the language lesson requires that targets, strategies, and tasks for both the students and the teachers be formulated before the lesson begins. This is important for the development of the language since it provides the direction in which the language teaching should take.

According to Gibbs et al. (1989: 122), the lesson planning process that involves the setting of goals and objectives is one of the most noteworthy, beneficial, and all-pervading in the practice of teaching a language since the lesson plan offers a systematic procedure or step by step procedure in imparting the language.

Also, preparing a lesson plan helps teachers to increase their confidence in whatever they are going to teach. It is a form of reference in the management of a lesson in terms of materials used, methodology, and timing before the teachers attend their classes. Besides, a lesson plan helps in identifying potential problem issues that may emerge in the process of learning and it further connects learners and teacher. Lesson plans help in creating a closer relationship not only between the teacher and the learners but also between the learners themselves. In other words, it means that focusing on the type of interaction, will help increase understanding while acting as a record of what is learned and what has not been covered (Tileston 2003: 37). For instance, the relationship between the teacher and the students will be increased by the interactions between the parties involved.

The preferences and the ideas brought forward by the teachers, in addition to their requirements, are important. Nonetheless, of great importance in the lesson planning process are the students’ requirements. For example, the approaches to learning that coincide with the student’s concerns are of great significance. Consistent with Skowron’s (2006: 112) assertions, effective lesson plans should have clearly stated goals and objectives along with clearly defined strategies upon which these objectives and goals may be achieved.

The Context of the lesson plan

This lesson plan is made for Iranian students aged between 15–22 years. The students are taking the English language course as part of their preparation for their migration to the USA and for going abroad to study. As this course is taught in the morning, it targets those who have just joined college and those who are not committed to their respective jobs. The targeted group comprises students aged between the ages of 15 to 22 years who have either completed or almost completed the intermediate school. The lesson is likewise important, especially for those who are aspiring to advance their career in a foreign country such as in the USA. As English is a lingua franca, it will be a form of communication in business transactions as well as being employed as an official language. It will also act as a medium through which they could interact with others and the environment.

This lesson is to be offered in a private institution since such a location provides a better environment for the development of the language. In such a private environment, students get a better place for practicing the language without external influence because the language is considered foreign in Iran. Besides, in Iran, the English language is restricted in public schools and this implies that it is only in private schools where English is legalized and can be taught and spoken without any external influence. Private institutes aim to give more successful learning experiences to students, but what is offered in public institutes and with the fees paid needs to correspond to the quality of education offered. Thus, an encouraging environment, especially in private schools where there is little or no outside interference, is considered important.

The environment and the atmosphere of the private institute is similar to the environment in the USA because students will be asked to speak English in all areas of the institution, not only in their class. Indeed, working in a private institution enables teachers and students to incorporate various aspects of language use and application in different situations (Mitchell and Tchudi 1999: 262). Private schools are similar in that they have small classes with few numbers of students which is easy to handle and supervise. It could be easier to evaluate the work of just a few students while establishing close relations with such a number is also easier and very essential in addressing their needs. The fact that the lessons last for one and a half hours allows the students and the teacher to delve deeper into the subject (Boud 1995: 69).

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In private schools, the students are instinctively motivated by their need to attend the lesson to achieve whatever they need, for instance, getting education abroad. Motivated learners are usually fast, enthusiastic, and incorporate the language into their everyday activities. Furthermore, the students are motivated to learn the language both internally and eternally. In external motivation, the language learning process relies on the exterior environmental factor such as the influence of the native language (Brown and Knight 1994: 27). In the internal impetus, the learning process depends on the activities that take place in class, mainly the students’ and the teacher’s behavior. In essence, the motivation to learn is varied and depends on an individual student. It is, therefore, necessary that these students’ inspirations be considered when planning the lesson.

The goals of this lesson must be directed towards developing the language skills that will be useful for the students when they are outside the country. Hence, some students enroll in the English language class to gain language skills such as speaking and listening they will need. When designing the lesson, these factors must be put into consideration. The learners are exposed to the use of language in various fields of academia, commerce, and political fronts. The lesson will, hence, be focused on three major areas: vocabulary, listening, and speaking or pronouncing the language. This will help the students confront all the problems encountered in their pursuit of further studies in a foreign country (Wartenberg 2009: 47).

As compared with the private institutions, language is more restricted in the state or public schools and, therefore, taught in few schools. Time devoted to the lesson in public schools is also limited. The teachers face further constraints in teaching materials such as books or other reference materials, namely magazines, journals, and articles. In private institutions where the language is legitimized, reference materials such as the vocabulary are available for the teachers and the students. In private schools, the length of time allows the students and the teachers to interact more with the language learning process (Harris and Bell 1986: 137). For instance, at the end of the lesson, students are given a chance to play with the word puzzle.

The authenticity of the lesson plan

The main aim of developing the plan is to enhance the listening skill and it is regarded as a good idea for those who may yearn to pursue their education in the USA since they will adequately achieve the American pronunciation by the end of this lesson. The teacher will use teaching aid material such as a CD rom that enhances the listening ability of the students to ensure that the outcome is achieved. One of the strategies, as indicated above, is to play a CD that provides a better teaching tool for both listening and pronunciation skills. The teacher will also write the newly learned words on the board and read these out later for the students who will in turn look up the meaning of those terms in the dictionary.

The lesson plan is directed towards developing and using the vocabulary which is to be understood by reading other English texts, along with utilizing the dictionary for pronunciation and finding the meaning of the words. Both listening and reading are also included in the lesson plan to enhance the use of the words by the learners. Reading makes learners more conversant with the newly learned vocabulary. Through reading, students, moreover, learn different situations where words are used. Listening increases the pronunciation capability and, as per this case, the reading materials will be taken from the course books that are published by the American press. The book will be “Headway beginners” for the college students’ courses but it will not be the only reading material to be used (Farrell 2002: 30).

The acceptable or recommended texts will aptly be utilized as advocated by various scholars. The ones used should only offer the natural language exercise typically made for the course, for instance, “Headway Beginners” for college students. According to the research that has been done, these books might be found boring and difficult for learners (Gibbs et al. 1989: 122). Thus, the learners will find these books less interesting because of the straight English used. For the students to find these books interesting to read, they will be encouraged to read them in turns to bring in the expected use of the language. Those who use these books, especially those learning the language for the first time, find it very de-motivating and, in most cases, the books are counter-productive to the learning process (Gibbs et al. 1989: 122). Therefore, passages taken from these books should remain interesting and enticing to the learners.

Conversely, teaching vocabulary has gained some importance in current language teaching practices. In the past, vocabulary was more emphasized in grammar, and yet it has various uses, especially in the general understanding of the language. For example, its use is embedded in the language learning skills such as reading, speaking, writing, and listening. In teaching vocabulary, an integrated English dictionary will be used. The students will be allowed to look for the word in the dictionary, especially those that are written on the board. The dictionary will not be restricted to the words learned in class but also any other English word whose meaning is not clear.

The word game will be used in most cases to teach the vocabulary. It will ideally make the students remember each word and how it is being used. Visual aids such as a list of various words will be used, while the use of vocabulary would be accompanied by the reading sessions. In this case, students learn how to read the vocabulary, how it is pronounced, and, finally, it’s meaning and application. As indicated previously, students will be asked to read a passage while others listen and this will allow the students to learn how to pronounce the words. It will also enhance the students’ listening ability as they will correct any ensuing mistakes by themselves. The word game will help the students recall the already learned vocabulary. (See Appendix 2 for the word game).

This process is very important as it encompasses all the language learning skills (Thompson 2007: 67) but all this must be done in such a way that it remains interesting to the students. It is also important that the process allows student participation to internalize language skills. The reason why much emphasis is put on the use of participatory sessions is to create a learning process where the learners are engaged in a lesson that recognizes the students. Moreover, the use of the word game reveals the knowledge of the learner and helps the teacher to know the words that have already been learned by the students. It further helps the learners to easily comprehend the use of the vocabulary. The use of the method is necessary as the learners are still in the formative stages of their language learning process. The lesson also constitutes the listening session which cannot be divorced from reading where the learners are taken through the listening skills. Reading skills will enhance the students’ capability, especially in the proper use of the vocabulary. Since the sentences to be read from the listening activity are simple and short as is indicated in the plan, the sentences will be shown on the board and the students will be asked to read the words in the sentences in turn.

The students are given a passage, emphasizing the intended listening ability. They are then allowed to voluntarily read the passage within the set time limit. As the students are new to the language, they must be exposed to the integrated form of the language. Thus, as the lesson is arranged, the reading session and the vocabulary teaching must coincide so that the learners are exposed to the use of the vocabulary as they read the passage. This is also useful as the learners will easily comprehend the general use of the vocabulary (Gagne et al. 1992: 175). The reading materials, together with the vocabulary, will be imparted to the students beginning with the simplest ones. This is considered very important as they will be able to relate the meaning of the words which they are conversant with or the words they have learned to the words which they have not learned or are yet to be learned. In other words, this will form a proper foundation of the language. After the reading, the students will be then asked to look for important information in the passage. This tests the student’s skill in scrutinizing the given passage and it will be accompanied by the questions which the students will be allowed to answer in groups where sharing and discussion of the findings are encouraged (Gibbs et al. 1992: 21).

For learners to comprehend the vocabulary and other learning processes, visual aids are necessary, especially those that show names or symbols associated with the words taught. This will make the students easily remember the learned words. The visual aid that will be used in this context is the word puzzle and pictorial charts that contain the words which are commonly used, especially those that begin with the vowels from the words they have reading in the texts provided. Since this is the first time for the students to learn the language, these visual aids will be useful as they will increase the memory of the word (Ryan and Serdyukov 2007: 172). The pictorial chart and the puzzles will always be on the smartboard where all the students are capable of seeing them. The flashcards with the printed vocabulary to be learned will be provided to the students as a language aid and they will be required to carry them to class for every lesson. The visual aid materials will be used by the teacher to bring forth the student’s use of the vocabulary and its application.

The visual aid materials will be useful to the teacher in generating the background of the lesson and attracting the students’ attention as well as making sure whether the students know the offered terminology. The visual aids are also important in starting the reading process by pinpointing the words as presented.

The use of visual aid materials such as flashcards and the smart board will enable the learners to become easily familiarized with the words and the areas where they are applied. The technique is also important as the students are fully engaged in the learning process. As Biggs (1999: 167) puts it when a visual aid is used and clues are provided, there are high expectations, and the process of reading automatically begins.

Interactions during the lesson

Interactions during the lesson are important and should be thoroughly dealt with during lesson planning. For example, interactions help in lesson diversification and lesson designs which tend to provide the students and the teacher with an opportunity to work as a unified class, be it individual work, paired work, or working in groups. Furthermore, interactions in class could be enhanced by incorporating open questions, pairing the students, or allowing group discussions. Apart from diversifying interactions, the lesson plan brings out the interesting parts of the lesson and, hence, motivates the learners (Alcott 2007: 4).

In class, pairing the learners and asking them to assume certain roles further enhances interactions. Besides, allowing the students to participate in the lesson either by correcting the mistakes and also being corrected enhances learner mastery of the language through student-student interactions. As already observed, interactions among students should be encouraged especially from the students themselves. This boosts faster learning of the language among the students as is observable where students are allowed to work together as a team after being paired.

The teacher’s role

As the teacher give the learners many chances to participate in the lesson, the teacher must also take control of the lesson using proper management tools and organization. The control of the lesson should not hinder the students’ freedom of expression during the learning process, including during group work. The teacher must also be cognizant of the students’ feelings and participation. However, other roles of the teacher are varied and depend on the tasks and stages of the lesson (Butt 2006: 14). For instance, the teacher moderates the activities during the lesson by asking the questions, monitoring, and evaluating the students’ performance by recording the words that students will find any difficulty with. As indicated, at the beginning of the lesson the teacher must prepare the students for the lesson by asking the students simple questions such as what their expectations are. Also, the teacher must ensure that the learning atmosphere is favorable by reducing tension in the class through anecdotal humor at the beginning of the lesson. Though the lesson is taught in an American context certain aspects must respect the cultural background of the students such as the use of materials. The teaching materials should not contain words that are considered abusive such as “Jesus” or reflect behaviors that are considered taboo such as sexual relationships. Therefore, the choice of words and materials are very essential in this lesson plan.

The use of mother-tongue

The target learners are monolingual and the influence of this first language in the learning process is imminent. Furthermore, the creation of an atmosphere where the language being learned is not influenced by the first language remains a challenge (Redmond et al. 2009: 9). In this sense, teachers are supposed to restrict the use of the first language as much as possible to prevent its influence in the foreign language being taught. In as much as the teachers restrict the use of the first language, the teacher must at all costs avoid slang language or direct translation. During the class discussions, the native language stands a high chance of being leaked into the foreign language and this should be avoided. However, the native language is also useful as it helps learners to connect the foreign language meanings to their respective natural settings (Stephenson and Laycock 1993: 69). Learners are capable of translating the meanings of the words unconsciously to their native language furthering the meaning attached to the given word. It is, therefore, advisable that mother-tongue is used only appropriately. After using a dictionary, it is anticipated that the students will not experience any difficulties in the words learned.

Response to the lesson planning

The functions of the feedback in the process of learning are equally important to the learner and the provider. Feedback increases the students’ language learning as well as the teacher’s output. In other words, the teachers may use the feedback to encourage language attainment. Feedback can also be useful to the students, especially in remembering the word, as well as putting the encountered mistakes right (Wartenberg 2009: 47). Feedback is varied in the language learning process. However, only which gently addresses the pronunciation mistakes will be considered first. The type of feedback to be used will depend on the area or topic of discussion. As for this lesson, feedback will be used in evaluating the students’ performance in the learning of words and vocabulary. It will also be important in assessing the students’ use of the words and, generally, the application of these words in the language.

Conclusion

To conclude, lesson planning is quite involving as it entails taking into consideration various factors that are considered fundamental to language teaching, development as well as the learners’ wants. The content of a lesson plan should ideally take into consideration the learners and their focusing purpose in the lesson. For instance, creating fascinating actions, constructing an encouraging learning environment coupled with the development of consequential tasks for the students are the major characteristics that form the language context. These principles help in maximizing the process of developing a language as they significantly take into consideration the styles of learning and learner needs.

Although developing a lesson plan consumes time, it is perceived to be one of the best classroom management tools. This is because a well-designed lesson plan can assist in encouraging the students’ concentration. Moreover, it is a method through which the teacher appraises the learners’ performance besides assessing the learning outcomes. The assessments are very important for the future improvements of the lessons, carrying out teaching activities, and promoting personal improvements.

Finally, planning a lesson involves many relative issues that include the requirement of the learner, the needs of the learner, and the ability of the learner as well as the rationale of the lesson. All those activities as well as the processes that are involved in teaching the language must be involved in the lesson plans. Generally, lesson plans form a very important tool in managing classrooms along with the evaluation of the learning process. It is, therefore, imperative that lesson plans be adopted by the education providers

References

Ahrenfelt, J. & N. Watkin (2006) 100 Ideas for Essential Teaching Skills (Continuum One Hundred). New York: Continuum.

Alcott, C. (2007) How to Make a Lesson Plan. Huntington, Indiana: Our Sunday Visitor.

Biggs, J. (1999) Teaching for Quality Learning at University. Buckingham, UK: SRHE and Open University Press.

Boud, D. (1995) Enhancing Learning through Self-assessment. London, UK: Kogan Page.

Brown, S. & P. Knight (1994) Assessing Learners in Higher Education. London: Kogan Page.

Butt, G. (2006) Lesson planning. London, UK: Continuum International Publishing Group.

Carey, L. & W. Dick (1990) The Systematic Design of Instruction. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Merrill/Pearson.

Erwin, T.D. (1991) Assessing Student Learning and Development. San Francisco, US: Jossey-Bass.

Farrell, T.S.C. (2002) Lesson planning. In: Richards, J.C., and W.A. Renandya, Methodology in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

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Appendix 1

Visual aids

US cities and important features

The Statue of Liberty
The Statue of Liberty, Washington DC.

This liberty statute was ideally incorporated on 28th October 1886 by the French people who gave it to the United States’ citizens as a sign of recognition of their friendship which was established during the American Revolution periods. The liberty monument symbolizes democracy, freedom as well as international friendship.

City of Clarkston.
City of Clarkston, Washington DC.

The City of Clarkston was named after the famous explorer called William Clark of the Clark and Lewis duo. The Clarkston name was ultimately established to symbolize the community after the alterations of various names. From its recreational activities and the Snake River, Clarkston has various other enticing activities for the residents and visitors.

Madison City
Madison City, Wisconsin.

Madison City serves as Wisconsin’s capital as well as Duane County seat. The city was established in 1836 after James Doty Duane, a former central judge had purchased forest land and a swamp found with four renowned lake regions. Madison City signifies a permanent legislature and territorial capital location.

Nashville City.
Nashville City, Tennessee.

Nashville was established in 1779 by John Donelson, James Robertson, and a Wataugans’ party. The city was originally dubbed as Fort Nash-borough after Nash Francis who was an American radical war hero. Nashville grew to become a railroad center and quickly emerged to be the county seat. It was later named a permanent Tennessee state capital.

Harrisburg City.
Harrisburg City, Pennsylvania.

This is regarded as the Pennsylvania Commonwealth capital state. It generally occupied the focal place in the nation’s industrial development starting from its foundation as a business settlement to the current renowned city. Harrisburg City played a significant role in the history of America during the American Civil War, the Industrial Revolution, and the Westward Migration. It became a large industrialized city in the 19th century.

Sequoia National Park.
Sequoia National Park, California.

This national park, which is situated in Visalia, California, was created on 25th September 1890. The park contains vertical relief and natural resources amongst them being the contiguous Mount Whitney. The huge Sequoia trees form the park’s famous foundation. Besides, the park preserves the Sierra Nevada landscape which existed before the settlement of the Euro Americans.

Golden Bridge.
Golden Bridge, San Francisco.

The Golden Bridge is deemed as a spanning suspension bridge which opens the San Francisco alcove into the Pacific Ocean. The bridge construction was accomplished in 1937 and, ever since then, it has become an internationally recognized San Francisco symbol.

World Trade Centre.
World Trade Centre, New York.

This was a seven-building complex situated in New York City, Lower Manhattan. By the time the World Trade Centre was completed, it was proved to be the tallest world-building. The initial plans to establish the World Trade Centre were planned in 1943 and a bill to initiate the project was passed. The World Trade Centre was completed in 1972 and it stood 417 meters or 1,368 feet.

Kenai Fjords National Park.
Kenai Fjords National Park, Alaska..

This national park was created in the USA in 1980 through the Alaska National Lands Interest Conservation Act. It covers 4,600 square kilometers and it equally has a Harding Ice field. Various tour companies offer guides mostly through the National park tour rangers. The park offers enticing views of marine wildlife and land.

Death Valley.
Death Valley, Sierra Nevada California.

This is a desert valley situated in Eastern California. It possesses the driest, hottest, and lowest location features in North America. The English name was given to the valley in 1849 in the period of the California gold-rush. The prospectors termed it Death Valley since individuals used it to cross to their targeted goldfields.

Appendix 2

Word Game

J Y I C S L A B S B W V E E Z
O T V M G R D M A B A A G L Y
U R D N M V E G E U U D S L T
R E Y N D I G M D R I D O I I
N B R N A A G E O L I T M S M
E I R F G L V R O C Q C J I R
Y L E E E I O O A E W Z A S O
H F F U L Z C P G T L E N L F
K O E L W N I A B P I X N A E
Q E E F I A R F D N V O U N D
W U M V W E S A E S I D N D A
E T L K E X A M I N A T I O N
Q A O T H Y I D D I S H M R V
C T S J L E L T E V F O Q B Y
G S N O I T C E P S N I B J F

The following words and vocabulary are found in the word puzzle. Locate the words in the puzzle.

America Baggage Calvin Coolidge
deformity Disease Ellis Island
examination Ferry immigration
inspection Journey newcomers
Poland Statue of Liberty steerage
vaudeville Yiddish

Appendix 3

FLASH CARD

Words spelled similarly but pronounced differently and have different meanings (heteronyms)

alternate – (ALT-er-nit) another choice; (ALT-er-NAIT) switch back and forth
affect – (ah-FECT) to change (AF-fect) feeling or emotion
appropriate – (ap-PROPE-ri-ATE) to take possession of (ap-PROPE-ri-it) suitable
attribute – (at-TRIB-ute) to ascribe (AT-trib-ute) characteristic
dove (bird, a brand of chocolate, a brand of shampoo) Dove (past tense of dive)
wind (wi-nd) moving air wind (wy-nd) to wrap something
Lead, (LEED), to guide lead (LED) a metallic element
  • alternate – (ALT-er-nit) another choice; (ALT-er-NAIT) switch back and forth
  • affect – (ah-FECT) to change; (AF-fect) feeling or emotion
  • appropriate – (ap-PROPE-ri-ATE) to take possession of; (ap-PROPE-ri-it) suitable
  • attribute – (at-TRIB-ute) to ascribe; (AT-trib-ute) characteristic
  • dove (bird, a brand of chocolate, a brand of shampoo); dove( past tense of dive)
  • wind (wi-nd) moving air; wind (wy-nd) to wrap something
  • Lead, (LEED), to guide; lead (LED) a metallic element.

SMARTBOARD

Words that sound the same but have different spellings and meanings (homonyms)

  • Witch- which
  • Horse, hoarse
  • Morning-mourning,
  • Sort-sought
  • Road rowed, rode
  • air, heir
  • All, awl
  • Allowed, aloud
  • Ball, bawl
  • Bard, barred
  • Board, bored
  • Bread, bred
  • Cereal, serial
  • Cheap, cheep
  • Creak, creek
  • Descent, dissent
  • Fair, fare

Appendix 4

Word Conversation

At flights Airport.

John has arrived at the flight’s airport to catch flight B A 201 to Kolkata

John: porter! Porter?

Porter: Yes sir. Only one bag? What flight and flights airlines sir?

John: Domestic travel to Calcutta.

Porter: This way sir. Please pay Re 10 for porterage at the airline ticket booking counter.

Porter: Airline luggage counters one-piece sir? Here is your travel baggage ticket?

Rajan (To the porter): Has the flight to Calcutta been called yet?

Porter: Yes sir. Please stand in that line and wait for your turn.

The voice on the PA system: your attention, please. Calling all passengers traveling by Bharat Airlines Flight No.201 to Kolkata. Passengers are requested to check-in Travel Baggage at the ticket counter. Thank you.

Lady at the Ticket Counter: your air ticket to Kolkata, sir. Please place your luggage suitcase on the weighing machine. As per the airline’s luggage regulations, the baggage allowance is only 20 kg.

John: Where is the weighing machine? I have some excess baggage

Lady at the Ticket counter: Just at your right-hand side. Thank you, sir. Here is your excess baggage ticket, Do you have any hand baggage.

John: Yes, one piece.

The man at the Ticket counter: Here is a baggage tag for your hand baggage. Please keep the excess baggage ticket carefully sir. You’ll require it to claim your excess baggage at Calcutta. Here are your flight ticket and your boarding card. Thank you. Next, please.

John sits on a couch in the waiting lounge.

Girl on the P.A. System: All passengers traveling to Calcutta by Bharat Airlines flight No.201 are requested to proceed for airport security check. Thank you.

John: (Inside the security check enclosure).

What do you want to check?

Security Inspector: Are you carrying any firearms or a pointed instrument?

John: No I do not have any kind of firearms.

Inspector: (Feeling Ranjan all over). This is just routine, sir. We have to be careful about security, you know. What with all these hijackings going on.

John: Yes, the newspapers are full of it these hijackings. I wonder how these people do it.

Inspector: One cannot be too careful. Do you have any hand baggage?

John: Yes, this is attached.

Inspector: Please open it. Right, that is all. Here let me stamp your Boarding card. Thank you.

John: passes through the security check enclosure and waits in another lounge After ten minutes.

Girl on the P.A. system: Bharat Airlines Flight 201 to Kolkata is now ready for departure. Passengers are requested to proceed to the aircraft. Please keep your boarding cards ready.

John (To the passenger walking next to him): Excuse me sir, which is the aeroplane that we board?

Passenger: The airport shuttle bus standing at the entrance will take us to the aircraft.

Ground Hostess: Good evening sir? May I see your boarding card, please? Thank you.

John Excuse me, where do I go?

Ground Hostess Please get into that bus

John (sitting in the Bharat Airlines bus, talks to his neighbor): I must say, I’ am most impressed with the efficiency of the Airlines. Air travel is so much more organized, faster cleaner than any other form of travel. Don’t you think so?

Fellow Passenger: Yes. It certainly is the fastest way of getting from one place to another. I am a businessman. Very often I travel to Delhi by the morning plane, do my work in Delhi and then return to Calcutta by the evening flight.

John: Isn’t that wonderful? You can travel 20000 miles in a day and do a full day’s work as well.

Fellow Passenger Yes, but these businesses of Security check wastes so much time. Then the planes are not keeping to their correct timings. Sometimes it can be very frustrating and upsetting too.

John: Here we are Sir. May I hold one of your luggage bags?

Fellow Passenger: No thank you I can carry my bag luggage. Thank you all the same for the offer.

Retrieved from: http://lalitkhungar.hubpages.com/hub/ATTHEAIRPORT

Appendix: 5

Song

America Neil Diamond

Far

We’ve been traveling far

Without a home

But not without a star

Free

Only want to be free

We huddle close

Hang on to a dream

On the boats and on the planes

They’re coming to America

Never looking back again

They’re coming to America

Home, don’t it seem so far away

Oh, we’re traveling light today

In the eye of the storm

In the eye of the storm

Home, to a new and a shiny place

Make our bed, and we’ll say our grace

Freedom’s light burning warm

Freedom’s light burning warm

Everywhere around the world

They’re coming to America

Every time that flag’s unfurled

They’re coming to America

Got a dream to take them there

They’re coming to America

Got a dream they’ve come to share

They’re coming to America

They’re coming to America

They’re coming to America

They’re coming to America

They’re coming to America

Today, today, today, today, today

My country ’tis of thee

Today

Sweet land of liberty

TodayOf thee, I sing

TodayOf thee, I sing

Today

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