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Deviant Behavior: The Main Theories

Difference Between Control Theory and Labeling Theory

Deviance is assumed to be any behavior that opposes communal standards and it is normally of sufficient extent to warrant denunciation from the other citizens. In social surroundings, deviance could sometimes be unlawful or non-criminal (Courtois & Gendron, 2017). Similarly, control theory considers that people refrain from immoral behavior because various factors control their emotions to violate community norms. The concept assumes that the intensity and consistency of human bonds or obligations to traditional society prevents social deviance (Courtois & Gendron, 2017). When a person’s relations with humanity are solid, they deter or restrict criminality and other deviant behavior.

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Similarly, Labeling Theory believes that individuals appear deviant when an anti-social classification is attached to them; they accept the tag by displaying the habits, acts and attitudes linked with that category. The marking hypothesis proposes that people are becoming perverted due to others imposing that persona on them (Courtois & Gendron, 2017). Thus, this method is based on stigma; when applying an immoral mark, a marginalized identity is attached to the branded party.

Functionalist, Interactionist and Conflict and how they Addresses Concept Deviance

Functionalism argues that deviance helps to establish social order by providing explanations of abnormal and normal behavior. Deviance is perceived by functionalism as right and wrong, based on the situation (Courtois & Gendron, 2017). Since it is often required to promote culture positively, it is not always evil. Regulation philosophy states that deviance is due to a lack of social relations within the community. Furthermore, Interactionism is a conceptual viewpoint that recognizes human behavior (such as disagreement, collaboration, identity development) as arising from personal contact (Courtois & Gendron, 2017). The core principle of this concept of differential association is that deviant conduct is a learned skill acquired from the various classes they interact with.

Finally, Conflict Theory argues that society is composed of constant skirmishes due to competition for scarce resources. The concept maintains that social structure is preserved by dominance and control rather than by agreement and acceptance (Courtois & Gendron, 2017). In this perspective, divergent activities are acts that do not conform to societal structures. The organization’s power to alter norms, income or status conflicts with the person (Courtois & Gendron, 2017). The poor’s legal protections could be overlooked, whereas the middle class stands with the wealthy instead of the disadvantaged.

Reference

Courtois, C., & Gendron, Y. (2017). The “normalization” of deviance: A case study on the process underlying the adoption of deviant behavior. A Journal of Practice & Theory, 36(3), 15-43.

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